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Trend in HEP detector R&D. Junji Haba KEK Detector Technology Project. These days there are so many regular Detector conferences, workshops…. Photon International Workshop On New Photon Detectors (PD07) 1st Workshop On Photon Detection For High Energy, Medical And Space Applications

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trend in hep detector r d

Trend in HEP detector R&D

Junji Haba

KEK Detector Technology Project

these days there are so many regular detector conferences workshops
These days there are so many regular Detector conferences, workshops…
  • Photon
    • International Workshop On New Photon Detectors (PD07)
    • 1st Workshop On Photon Detection For High Energy, Medical And Space Applications
    • 5th International Conference On New Developments In Photodetection (NDIP08)
  • Calororimeter
    • 12th International Conference On Calorimetry In High Energy Physics (CALOR 06)
  • Gaseous
    • 3rd Symposium On Large TPCs For Low Energy Rare Event Detection
    • Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (RD51) Workshop
    • International Conference on Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD 20XX)
  • Vertex/Pixel/3D
    • VERTEX 2006: 15th International Workshop On Vertex Detectors
    • Vertex 2007: 16th International Workshop On Vertex Detectors
    • 6th International Symposium On The Development And Applications Of Semiconductor Tracking Detectors (STD6 Hiroshima)
    • 8th International Conference On Large Scale Applications And Radiation Hardness Of Semiconductor Detectors (RD 07)
    • 6th International Conference On Radiation Effects On Semiconductor Materials, Detectors And Devices
    • PIXEL 2008: International Workshop On Semiconductor Pixel Detectors For Particles And Imaging
    • VIPS2010
  • Particle ID
    • The International Workshop On Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counters (RICH 20XX)
  • Electronics
    • 20th Joint Symposium On Photonics And Electronics For Accelerators And High Energy Physics Experiments
    • 5th IEEE Real Time Conference 2007 (RT 07)
    • Workshop on Electronics for LHC and future Experiments (LECC) Topical Workshop On Electronics For Particle Physics (TWEPP 07)
  • PSD
    • International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors (PSD8)
    • International Linear Collider Workshop (LCWS06)
  • Imaging/Xray/Neutron
    • Hercules Specialized Courses: Synchrotron X-Ray Imaging
    • th International Workshop On Radiation Imaging Detectors (IWORID 8)
    • nternational Conference On Imaging Techniques In Subatomic Physics, Astrophysics, Medicine, Biology And Industry (Imaging 2006)
    • 2nd Development In X-Ray Tomography
    • 1st European Conference On Molecular Imaging Technology (EuroMedlm 2006)
    • 9th International Conference On Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2006)
  • Others
    • International Workshop On Cryogenic Liquid Detectors For Future Particle Physics13-14 Mar 2006, Gran Sasso, Italy CRYODET2
    • Workshop On Next Generation Nucleon Decay And Neutrino Detectors 2006 (NNN06 / Seattle)
    • 2nd Topical Workshop On Low Radioactivity Techniques (LRT 2006)
    • 20th International Conference On Magnet Technology (MT20)
    • 52nd Magnetism And Magnetic Materials Conference (MMM 2007)
    • 23rd International Conference On Nuclear Tracks In Solids (ICNTS-23)
    • 14th International Conference On Radiation Effects In Insulators (REI-14)
  • School
    • 5th CERN - Latin American School Of High-Energy Physics
    • 2nd Summer School On Particle Accelerators And Detectors
  • General topics only
    • IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference (NSS MIC 20xx)
    • Topical Seminar On Innovative Particle And Radiation Detectors (Siena.. IPRD XX)
    • International Conference On Technology And Instrumentation In Particle Physics (TIPP XX)
    • Vienna Conference on Instrumentation (Vienna VCI 20XX)
    • International Conference on Advanced Technology and Particle Physics ICATPP (Villa Olmo)
    • International Conference On Instrumentation For Colliding Beam Physics (INSTR XX)
    • Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors (Elba)
    • Symposium On Radiation Measurements And Applications (SORMA XI)
too hard to review this active field in only 20min

Almost impossible

Too hard to review this active field in only 20min.
  • Previous talk successfully gave experimentalist a clear image of
  • String theory

This talk

For theorist to learn how to cook the strings with modern detectors






for a comprehensive view attend new series of iupap conference
For a comprehensive view, attend new series of IUPAP conference

Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics



what to measure with detectors
What to measure with detectors?
  • Two Lorentz four vectors, xm and pm

(theorists know well) or

(t,x) and (E, p):

time, position, energy and momentum

  • That’s it ?

Q (charge) and mass (particle species) necessary

for Particle identification. To be skipped today.


Opera First nt

  • Precision is necessary for
    • Better Vertexing
    • Higher momentum resolution

Nuclear emulsion is still

the best detector for precision


1968: Georges Charpak revolutionizes detection

  • In the 1960s, detection in particle physics mainly involved examining millions of photographs from bubble chambers or spark chambers. This was slow, labour intensive and not suitable for studies into rare phenomena.
  • However, the revolution in transistor amplifiers was to trigger new ideas. While a camera can detect a spark, a detector wire connected to an amplifier can detect a much smaller effect. In 1968, Georges Charpak developed the 'multiwire proportional chamber', a gas-filled box with a large number of parallel detector wires, each connected to individual amplifiers. Linked to a computer, it could achieve a counting rate a thousand times better than existing detectors. The invention revolutionized particle detection, which passed from the manual to the electronic era.
  • (CERN archive)
detectors @high luminosity more and more particles occupy the elements
Detectors @High luminosity More and more particles occupy the elements
  • Higher rate, high occupancy
    • 1D easily saturated 2D
      • Wire chamber Wireless MPGD
      • Silicon strip  pixel
      • To distribute hits in 2D elements



TPC Web page

wireless chambers mpgd

3.106 Hz mm-2

Wireless chambers, MPGD



Talk given by J. Kaminskiin this conference

F. Sauli TIPP09



Very fine but small

Short Drift


Long Drift

J. Kaminski

silicon detectors also go 2d strip p ixel
Silicon detectors also go 2DStrip  Pixel



Photo from Stapnes, Nature 448

impact parameter resolution
Impact parameter resolution






lhc detectors are miracles but
LHC detectors are miracles but …

A bit heavy !?

A bit heavy !?


Mega trackers


More and more Materials necessary for


bondings, cables and services


the thinner the more beautiful
The thinner, the more beautiful !
  • Monolithic detectors
    • Sensors and readout chip fabricated on single wafer
    • MAPS, DEPFET, Deep N-Well, SOI, CAP…
  • No bumps, high pixel density, thinnest electronics

From PVA TePla web



need more and more functions vertical integration comes next
Need more and more functions Vertical Integration comes next
  • Moore’s law (“Livingstone plot” in microelectronics ) will be slowed down in 10 years only with “2D” technology

3D (Vertical Intgrattion) technology driven by industry

HEP community has

organized to explore

  • 3DIC collaboration by Fermilab
  • SOI collaboration by KEK
  • EU funded AIDA project

Close communication

VIPS Facilitation Group

  • Bridge among the collaborations,
  • The 1st workshop, VIPS2010 held in Pavia.
  • Interface with industry
  • Provide an inventory of various processes with their requirements
  • Get support from Labs and communities.


Physical limitation in finer pitch

ULSI can’t stay in 2D brane in future !

multi project wafer mpw to share chip area and enormous cost
Multi Project Wafer (MPW) to share chip area and enormous cost
  • 3DIC collaboration
  • SOI collaboration
the tougher the better
The tougher, the better
  • Radiation tolerance is the most serious issue in
  • (HL-)LHC
  • (Super-)B-factory .
other material than n silion
Other material than n-silion?

Or another type of 3D device







advanced superconducting magnets
Advanced Superconducting Magnets

New conductor development for

higher current density

(higher magnetic field)

Nb3Sn, Nb3Al…

Dual solenoid (w/o yoke)

Popular in MRI system.

jet energy resolution
Jet energy resolution

Partons are


as Jets



Jet Energy Resolution s/Ejet (%)

ALEPH measured

CDF measured

ATLAS simulation

H1 measured



ILC goal



Jet Energy (GeV)

ideas for better calorimetry
Ideas for better calorimetry

PFA(Particle Flow Algorithm)

Dual Readout (not adopted in ILC)

F.Simon, KEK seminar

  • Relevant scale in HEP experiment

t ~ L(m)/c ~ o(nsec)

  • Traditional technique
    • Scintillator + Photo Multiplier Tube ~o(100 psec)
  • Breakthrough with a spark discharge in gas
    • Pestov counter  ALICE MRPC ~50psec

Fast spark

Mulriple measurement

faster photon detections




Faster photon detections
  • Micro channel plate (MCP) PMT
  • Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD)

TOF with Cherenkov counter


Best for single Particle

Corrected for the jitter

of light source


Inami, TIPP09


Avalanche Diode (AD)

Fukazawa et al.,

IEEE TNS 55, 758


Inami, TIPP09

further precision
Further precision?

Applicable for beam pulse

Not for single particle

Subpico second world

  • Streak camera
  • EO modulation (Pockels effect)

Fast gating and sampling for sub pico second wave form

HPK Catalog C6138

spin off is another important key word for the hep labs to survive
“Spin off” is another important key word for the HEP labs to survive…

The most successful example

From PSI, Pilatus Xray pixel

  • A very short look of the recent Detector R&D is given for theorists.
  • Detector R&D is a very active field (even beyond) HEP
  • We are about to reach the sub-micro-meter, sub-pico-second world.
  • 1D2D transitions is are going in several place.
  • Next step; thin and highly integrated sensros with 3D technology
  • Energy measurement (calorimetry) seems the hottest now.
  • Measurement at low energy with ultra high senstivity /resolution has not be covered. new chapter in PDG
  • R&D activity in HEP can not and should not be independent of the applications in the other sectors (industrial, medical….)