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Daniel

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  1. Daniel Defamed

  2. The Tradition… Hostage Student Interpreter Protected Visionary Statesman

  3. The Challenge… Porphyry 232-305 A.D. Jewish Philosopher Attacked Christianity Because of Daniel! Daniel a fiction! Written after the fact!

  4. The Continuation… 18th Century Enlightenment Skeptical of ALL Biblical history Skeptical of Daniel Continues to this day!

  5. The Maccabees… Antiochus IV Epiphanes Attacked Jews Prohibited Practices Defiled the Temple Maccabees Revolted Hannukah! Daniel 11

  6. Original View Modern View

  7. Original View Modern View Real Daniel

  8. Original View Modern View Real Daniel Fake Daniel

  9. Original View Modern View Real Daniel Written 6th Century B.C. Fake Daniel

  10. Original View Modern View Real Daniel Written 6th Century B.C. Fake Daniel Written 2nd Century B.C.

  11. Original View Modern View Real Daniel Written 6th Century B.C. Prophecy foretelling history Fake Daniel Written 2nd Century B.C.

  12. Original View Modern View Real Daniel Written 6th Century B.C. Prophecy foretelling history Fake Daniel Written 2nd Century B.C. History in the guise of prophecy

  13. “Daniel is now accepted as a pseudepigraph written, at least in its present form, in the Maccabean period, and few Christians lose sleep over this.” Maurice Casey, “Porphyry and the Origin of the Book of Daniel,” JTS, 27 (1976), p. 15.

  14. Contents of Daniel Historical Dates Historical Names Two Languages Dated Dreams and Visions References to Other Books

  15. DANIEL the Hostage 1:1-3

  16. “In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God, which he carried into the land of Shinar…

  17. to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god… [along with] certain of the children of Israel, and of the king’s seed, and of the princes; children in whom was no blemish, but well-favored, and skilful in all wisdom… Daniel 1:1-4

  18. “The Word of the LORD which came to Jeremiah the prophet… against Egypt, against the army of Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt which was by the river Euphrates in Carchemish, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon smote in the fourth year of Jehoiakim… Jeremiah 46:1-2

  19. Which is it? Daniel 1:1-4 -- THIRD YEAR of Jehoiakim Jeremiah 46:1-2 -- FOURTH YEAR of Jehoiakim

  20. The Babylonian Chronicle 605-594 B.C. Translated 1956!

  21. Ancient Calendars Winter Winter Modern 609 B.C. 608 B.C. 607 B.C. Jerusalem 1st Year Jehoiakim 2nd Year Babylon “0” Year Year 1st Year Jehoiakim Fall Spring Fall Spring

  22. Ancient Calendars Winter Winter Modern 608 B.C. 607 B.C. 606 B.C. Jerusalem 2nd Year Jehoiakim 3rd Year Babylon 1st Year 2nd Year Jehoiakim Fall Spring Fall Spring

  23. Ancient Calendars Winter Winter Modern 607 B.C. 606 B.C. 605 B.C. Jerusalem 3rd Year Jehoiakim 4th Year Babylon 2nd Year 3rd Year Jehoiakim Fall Spring Fall Spring

  24. Ancient Calendars Winter Winter Modern 606 B.C. 605 B.C. 604 B.C. Jerusalem 4th Year Jehoiakim 5th Year Babylon 3rd Year 4th Year Jehoiakim Fall Spring Fall Spring

  25. Ancient Calendars Winter Winter Modern 606 B.C. 605 B.C. 604 B.C. Jerusalem 4th Year Jehoiakim 5th Year Babylon 3rd Year 4th Year Jehoiakim Fall Spring Fall Spring Battle of Carchemish

  26. Ancient Calendars August 16 Winter Winter Modern 606 B.C. 605 B.C. 604 B.C. Jerusalem 4th Year Jehoiakim 5th Year Babylon 3rd Year 4th Year Jehoiakim Fall Spring Fall Spring Battle of Carchemish

  27. Ancient Calendars August 16 September 7 Winter Winter Modern 606 B.C. 605 B.C. 604 B.C. Jerusalem 4th Year Jehoiakim 5th Year Babylon 3rd Year 4th Year Jehoiakim Fall Spring Fall Spring Battle of Carchemish

  28. BEROSUS Babylonian historian, 3rd Century B.C. “Nabopolassar… committed to his son Nebuchadnezzar, who was still but a youth, some parts of his army, and sent him against Pharaoh Necho of Egypt’. So when Nebuchadnezzar had given battle… he beat him,… and made that country a branch of his own kingdom; but about that time it happened that his father Nabopolassar fell ill, and died in the city of Babylon, when he had reigned twenty-one years.

  29. BEROSUS Babylonian historian, 3rd Century B.C. And when he heard this,… that his father had died, and having settled the affairs of Egypt, and the other countries, as also those that concerned the captive Jews, Phoenicians, Syrians, and those of the Egyptian nations, and having committed the conveyance of them to Babylon to certain of his friends,… he hurried… over the desert, and came to Babylon.” History of Babylon, Book 3; Josephus, Antiquities, Bk 10, Chap. 11, par. 219-222.

  30. Ancient Calendars September 7 Winter Winter Modern 606 B.C. 605 B.C. 604 B.C. Jerusalem 1st of King Nebby 5th Year Babylon 0th of King Nebby Fall Spring Fall Spring Battle of Carchemish

  31. If the author of the Book of Daniel wrote in the 2nd century BC in Jerusalem, he would have used the Jerusalem system of dating, and the year stated by Jeremiah.

  32. Instead, the author used the Babylonian calendar, as would be expected, if he were actually living IN Babylon at the time he wrote the book.

  33. This information was lost in 482 B.C. when Xerxes I razed and destroyed the city of Babylon, burying all of Babylon’s chronicles until rediscovered in the last century.

  34. Ancient Calendars September 7 Winter Winter Modern 606 B.C. 605 B.C. 604 B.C. Jerusalem 1st of King Nebby 5th Year Babylon 0th of King Nebby Fall Spring Fall Spring Battle of Carchemish

  35. 3:1-30 Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego

  36. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego (Hananiah) (Mishael) (Azariah) “Hanunu - Chief of Royal Merchants” “Mushalim Marduk - Overseer of the Harem” “Aridi-Nabu - Secretary to the Prince” Five-sided Clay Prism, Istanbul Museum; J.B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, pp. 307-308

  37. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego (Hananiah) (Mishael) (Azariah) It was common practice in the ancient middle east to erect a statue of the ruling emperor in the provinces and vassal territories, and to demand that all the citizens of the region bow down in obeisance to that statue as an act of loyalty to the emperor.

  38. Chronicle of Sargon I Front Back

  39. Sargon, King of Agade, by Ishtar’s royal insignia was exalted… … in the eleventh year his hand subdued the west to its full extent. He united them under one control; He set up his images in the west.

  40. Plain of Dura

  41. Punishment by fire was the Babylonian method of execution

  42. Tossing someone into a den of wild, hungry beasts was the preferred Persian method of execution

  43. NEBUCHADNEZZAR "Builder of Babylon" 4:1-37

  44. Nebuchadnezzar, Builder of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar Cylinder Describes the various buildings and civil works Nebuchadnezzar built in Babylon during his reign

  45. Nebuchadnezzar, Builder of Babylon Brick inscribed in honor of Nebuchadnezzar One of 15,000,000 found so far

  46. Nebuchadnezzar, Builder of Babylon ‘Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, who cares for Esagila and Ezida, eldest son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon’