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Urban Search and Rescue 2007 General Robotics 2007
Purpose Introduction • Carnegie Urban Rescue Force (CURF) has started a initiative with the General Robotics Class of Spring 2007 to develop a fleet of highly compatible robots to help in the rescue effort.
Design Criteria Introduction • Size Constraints • Width: 6.0” • Depth: 8.5” • Height: 6.0” • Includes the vision system • Tele-operation • Vision System • Extra Parts • Extra LEGO motor • $50 spending limit for LEGO parts
High Level Overview Tasks • Write a Proposal March 21 • Checkpoint March 28 • Demonstration April 3 • Finalists April 4 • Poster April 9 • Self-Evaluation April 9
Design Proposal Tasks • Write-up: • Basic schematics • Descriptions • Special features • Obstacles • Climbing • Steering • Controllability • Hand in by Tuesday, March 21st, 2007 • Following outline is Highly Recommended. • Note: You cannot continue on with the prototyping phase if your design proposal does not meet these requirements
Last Year’s Scenario Tasks • Location: Scaife Hall • Disaster: Meteor Strike
Building Floor Plan Tasks
Common Difficulties Tasks • Rubble and debris • Collapsed objects • Unstable structures • Narrow hallways • Obstacles • Stairs
This Year’s Scenario Tasks • CMU Nursing Home • Earthquake
Building Floor Plan Tasks To Be Released After Checkpoint Cleared
Designing Good Robot Platform for Adverse Terrain Mechanical • Drive trains revisited • Tank Treads • Differential drive configurations • Center of Gravity • Mechanical Robustness • Suspensions • Testing
Drive Trains Revisited Mechanical • High-torque situations • Back driving • Foreign objects • Weak links
Tank Treads Mechanical In the past, people forgot: • Slack on top or bottom depending upon location of driven wheel • Idler on top of tread can increase tension and area of drive wheel in contact with tread
Differential Drive Mechanical • Advantages in steering • What happens if you lose a DOF?
Center of Gravity Mechanical • Masses • Handy Board • LEGO motors • Added mass (batteries, fishing weights, etc.) • High CG is bad • Consider CG in relation to length and width • Traction
Mechanical Robustness Mechanical • Masses • Internal forces • Odd forces • No parts sticking out • Zip Ties
Suspensions Mechanical • 1st: Wheel/track suspension • squishyness of wheels • span of tracks • 2nd: Active Dampening Suspensions • Tube things in kits • LEGO shock absorbers • Random foam, springs • 3rd: Passive suspensions
Testing Mechanical • Torque Tests • Stall drive wheels • Hill Tests • Various terrain • Ground clearance • Break-over angle • Ridges
Camera and Camera Mount Vision
Pan and Tilt Camera Mount Vision • Camera moves • Robot doesn’t • Greater visibility • Obstacles
Control and Control Issues Controls • Robot has 1st person perspective • Pilot has 3rd person perspective (sometimes occluded) • Moveable Camera • Where to put intelligence? • Autonomy?
Control: Robot Intelligence Controls • Robot has encoders • go(int inches) • turn(int degrees) • Ground sensors • feelers • Inclination sensors • mercury switches • rolling ball inclinometers, • accelerometers • Internal sensor • Self-diagnostics
Control: Robot Autonomy Controls • Autonomous functions to deploy equipment • Autonomously navigate occluded areas (i.e. wall following) • Automate compounded functions such as expanding
“Smart Mechanism” Controls • Mechanisms that compound DOFs • Can do different things depending on which way turned • Release mechanisms • Expanding Mechanisms • Locking Mechanisms • Can lock an expansion or an appendage into position • E-Mail me (and other TAs) for consulting
Marsupial Robots Robin Murphy, USF Shape Reconfiguring robots Inuktun.com Asymmetry NASA Rovers Current off road vehicle examples Land Rover Jeep Hummer Moon Rover Mars Rovers ATVs The Animal (ok, old) Other Toys Neat Ideas Controls
Q&A Q&A • Design Proposal • Checkpoint • Demonstration
Design Proposal? Q&A • Qualitative analysis • Mobility, user friendliness, coolness • Quantitative analysis • Top speed, ground clearance, torque • For the proposal, we would like you to think numerically.
Prototype Evaluation? Q&A • 6 of the 8 checkpoints • Ability to move and turn, • Use the camera • Surmount various obstacles. • None of these require autonomy. • This must be done during lab hours. • March 28th at 8pm (the latest)
USAR Demonstration Q&A • April 3rd • One run • 2 minute setup time • 10 minute run