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Organic Halides. By Colby and Brandon. The general structure. Organic halides are organic compounds in which 1 or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by halogen atoms. . H. H. H. H. H. H. 2-bromobutane. H. H. H. 1-bromochlorobutane.

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organic halides

Organic Halides

By Colby and Brandon

the general structure
The general structure
  • Organic halides are organic compounds in which 1 or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by halogen atoms.

H

H

H

H

H

H

2-bromobutane

H

H

H

1-bromochlorobutane

http://www.angelfire.com/bc2/OrgChem/halides.html

naming organic halides
Naming organic halides
  • Name the parent chain first (the longest chain).
  • Then name the attachments with the correct lowest possible number.
  • When naming the halogen attachments use the prefix with the ending “o” (chloro, bromo, flouro, and iodo).
  • When naming, the prefix must be written in alphabetical order.

1-bromochlorobutane

drawing organic halides
Drawing organic halides
  • Draw the parent chain first (butane).
  • Then draw the attachments in the correct places (2-bromo).

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

http://www.angelfire.com/bc2/OrgChem/halides.html

reaction types
Reaction types
  • Addition
  • Substitution
  • Elimination
addition reaction
Addition reaction
  • Addition reactions occur by breaking a double or triple bond and adding in halogens.

Ethene Chlorine 1,2-dichloroethane

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chlorine_and_etene_addition.png

substiution reaction
Substiution reaction
  • Substation reactions occur when the breaking of a carbon-hydrogen bond in an alkane and replacing the hydrogen atom with another atom or group of atoms and leaving a hydrogen-halogen bond.

heat

Methane + chlorine -> 1-chloromethane + Hydrochloride

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substitution_reaction

elimination reaction
Elimination reaction
  • An ion comes in contact with an alkyl halide to produce an alkene by removing a halide ion and a hydrogen or 2 halide ions or more.

http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://content.tutorvista.com/chemistry_11/content/us/class11chemistry/chapter17/images/img78.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.tutorvista.com/topic/haloalkanes-reaction&usg=__wTMhephcLZWoCBW-ajeT0Afn5UU=&h=146&w=446&sz=3&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=H387qDybz_PWvM:&tbnh=74&tbnw=221&prev=/images%3Fq%3Delimination%2Breaction%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1366%26bih%3D591%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=798&vpy=324&dur=22493&hovh=116&hovw=356&tx=39&ty=137&ei=uBCZTLPcBsT38AaZ5eUC&oei=uBCZTLPcBsT38AaZ5eUC&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:0

everyday uses
Everyday Uses

DDT

  • Teflon: non-stick coatings lab and cookware
  • DDT: insecticide (pentachlorophenol)
  • CFC`s: coolant for air conditioners
  • Freon: coolant used in refrigerators
  • PCB`s: liquid for electrical transformers

http://www.benbest.com/cryonics/s21cm99.html

http://www.vialattea.net/esperti/php/risposta_printable.php?num=10742

more everyday uses
More everyday uses
  • Agent orange (insecticide)
  • Fire extinguishers (tetrachloromethane)
  • PVC plastics (used in building materials) (chloroethene)
references
References
  • http://www.cdli.ca/courses/chem2202/unit03_org03_ilo01/b_activity.html
  • Jenkins, Frank, et al. Chemistry. Scarborough Ontario: Nelson Canada, 1996.
  • http://www.angelfire.com/bc2/OrgChem/halides.html
  • http://www.canadaconnects.ca/chemistry/10093/