Brief images of Imperialism Page 613-656
Our objectives are Identify what were the only free areas in Africa You will learn how the Suez Canal and Fashoda Incident contributed to tension among the Imperial Powers. Explain the different ways the Belgium imposed colonial rule and exploitation on the Congo.. You will learn the ways that India and China were controlled by the imperial powers.
Objectives You will review the road to unification prior to 1870. Assess why the Zollverein was an important step to economic unity. Analyze Bismarck’s methods to ensure Prussian dominance in the creation of the German state. Judge for yourself if REAL POLITIK is an effective tool to help obtain Unification.
A great “congress” was held at Berlin in 1878 to help solve the crisis over Russian intervention in the Ottoman empire.
Also, there was the question of how to divvy up Africa in an orderly manner… • Of course, no one asked the native Africans. • Over time, “warring” tribes would be placed together • Straight lines in Africa and the Middle East clearly indicate “imperial” meddling.
In the treaty of Berlin, Bismarck took nothing…but be aware that the Germans were more than prepared to exert influence in the future.
The Berlin conference laid down certain rules-- A European power with holdings on the coast had prior rights Occupation must include administrators or troops Each power must give notice to the others of what territories it considered its own THE REAL SCRAMBLE BEGAN!
The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire made it possible for the European powers to meddle in North Africa—Britain and France, especially.
Britain moved into Egypt in 1882—but they had already bought a substantial amount of shares in the Suez canal in 1874…
Of the Northern African nations, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free of European control…
Italy tried to conquer Ethiopia, but the Italians were defeated. The Italian prisoners were castrated and sent back home. Italy would not forget this.
At the battle of Adowa, using old guns they didn't know would operate, and a lot of spears, the primitive, ill-armed Ethiopians had humiliated a modern European army. In their childlike manner, they had castrated all prisoners captured in the battle. Their philosophy was: when they went back home to Italy, they couldn't become fathers of sons who might return to seek vengeance.
FASHODA INCIDENT [Fashoda Incident] , 1898, diplomatic dispute between France and Great Britain. Toward the end of the 19th cent., while Britain was seeking to establish a continuous strip of territory from Cape Town to Cairo, France desired to establish an overland route from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The French backed down—but a wave of hatred swept over France as they realized the British “Bullies” had got their way.
Soon after that, the British got involved in the Boer War—The Germans supported the Boers, while the British were ultimately victorious—we learned about this war earlier.
The Partition of Africa continued---The Congo, controlled by Belgium under King Leopold II, became synonymous with the abuses of Imperialism.
Wild Rubber was in demand form many years….before domestic rubber trees would grown and come into production.
Children were maimed and killed as a warning to those who did not obey the quotas…
But the relationship was not reciprocal as compared to the other colonies of Australia and New Zealand—who mainly had white settlers. The white peoples were always favored over the colonial peoples..
Many of the upper crust Indians were educated by the British…thus speaking perfect English and learning Liberal Western Ideas. Those ideas included concepts of freedom and liberty for all.
Two great leaders Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatmas Gandhi would be educated at English Schools.
Imperialism highlighted conflicts with Russia and Britain. Russia moved in on the aging Ottoman Empire.
The Kingdom of Persia was loaned money by the British—the Persian Gulf became the “price” for this loan.
Oil became a highly valued commodity around 1900. Persia fell into competing Zones—Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and Afghanistan are all modern nations created out of the ancient state of Persia. This is a contributing factor to the disruption in the Middle East to this day.
China was also ripe for the picking. We have already learned about the opium wars.
The Dowager Empress, called the “Dragon Queen” encouraged revolt against the Westerners.
In China, there was the “Order of Literary Patriotic Harmonious Fists”—but Westerners called them “The Boxers”
A secret society, known as the Fists of Righteous Harmony, attracted thousands of followers. Foreigners called members of this society "Boxers" because they practiced martial arts. The Boxers also believed that they had a magical power, and that foreign bullets could not harm them. Millions of "spirit soldiers," they said, would soon rise from the dead and join their cause.
The Boxers ripped up train tracks, killed missionaries, and were against all things Western.
The Boxer rebellion was put down, but the Chinese government struggled to continue their Westernization yet suppress Rebellions.
Japan would need to learn from China’s exploitation—or else they would face the same..
In our film, “The Battle of Tsushima” we will learn how Japan handled its Westernization process.
Objectives You reviewed the road to unification prior to 1870. Assessed why the Zollverein was an important step to economic unity. Analyze Bismarck’s methods to ensure Prussian dominance in the creation of the German state. Judged for yourself if REAL POLITIK is an effective tool to help obtain Unification.