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Age of Imperialism

Age of Imperialism

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Age of Imperialism

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  1. Age of Imperialism Chapter 21

  2. Imperialism Causes: • Industrial Revolution leads to economic competition for resources & new markets • Nationalism… • Desire for more power • Racism… • White Europeans thought they were superior to all other races (White mans burden , ethnocentrism, paternalism) • Social Darwinism • Religion… • Moral responsibility to civilize the “savages”

  3. Forms of Imperialism • Spheres of influence(see slide # 15) • the claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory • EX: China • Indirect Rule • Local rulers were allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status • Cost less and convenient • Direct Rule • Local rulers were removed from power and replaced with officials from the mother country • Impact the indigenous people, took away their rights

  4. Forces working against Africans and Asians • Internal • Variety of cultures and infighting • Technology disadvantage • Empires weakened over the centuries in Asia and Africa • External • European technological advances (EX: The Maxim Gun)

  5. United States Imperialism • Spanish American War • Gain Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines by treaty and Cuba is “free” from Spanish control • Philippine-American War • Emilio Aguinaldo led Philippine resistance • US spends 400 million and 4000 American lives to defeat the Philippines in a 3 year war • 20,000 Philippine casualties of war • As many as 500,000 Philippine civilians

  6. US Imperialism in the late 19th Century Another Shotgun Wedding Description: A woman (Hawai'i) and Uncle Sam are getting married, kneeling before the minister (McKinley) who is reading from a book entitled "Annexation Policy". The bride seems ready to bolt. Behind the couple stands Morgan (jingo) with a shotgun. http://library.kcc.hawaii.edu/~soma/cartoons/

  7. Imperialism in Asia (1880-1914) • 1819: Britain established the colony of Singapore • Sir Thomas Raffles • 1839: China fights Britain to keep out opium (an addictive drug from India) but fails • By 1900 China has been carved into Spheres of Influence

  8. Imperialism in Asia (1880-1914) • 1898: U.S. makes Philippines a colony • 1899: U.S. establishes the Open Door policy that allows all nations to trade with China • 1900: Boxer Rebellion – Chinese rebels attack foreigners and fail • 1911: Chinese revolt and establishes a republic in China

  9. Spheres of Influence in China in 1900

  10. British Control of India • Great Britain gained power in India during the 18th century • British East India Company • Given power by the British government to become more involved in Indian politics and military affairs • Sepoys • Hired soldiers that protected companies interests • Great Rebellion or the 1stWar of Independence (1857) Cause; bullets greased with cow and pig fat • Sepoys refused to use bullets, revolted • Fresh British troops conquered the rebellion

  11. Mohandas Gandhi • Viceroy • British government ruled India directly through a official called a Viceroy • Representative of the monarch • Put into place after the 1st War of Independence • Gandhi • Born 1869 in western India; educated as a lawyer • Practiced in South Africa representing Indian workers • Returned to India to led fight for independence • Non-violent protest • Desired equal rights as citizens of the British Empire

  12. Imperialism in Africa (1880-1914) • Pre Imperialism in Africa: • Thousands of small tribes/kingdoms each with their own language • Europeans traded with African tribes with little motivation to conquer • Europeans explored Africa… • Ex: David Livingstone spent 30 years exploring the continent

  13. Imperialism in Africa (1880-1914) • European nations tended to stay near the coast and establish only trading posts • Why did Europe have trouble conquering Africa earlier? • Tough terrain and rivers • Malaria • Powerful African armies • Lack of motivation (Prior to 1880s) • What has changed?

  14. Imperialism in Africa (1880-1914) • 1884-1914: Africa is divided up totally by European countries • Ethiopia & Liberia are the only free countries • France has the largest African empire: as big as the United States • U.S. & Russia are the only two countries without African colonies

  15. Berlin Conference (1884) • European leaders met to divide the colonial borders in Africa to avoid war • Who was there? • Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Russia, U.S.A., Portugal, Denmark, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium and Turkey • Problem? • Didn’t take tribal boundaries into consideration

  16. Impact of Imperialism in Africa • Economic instability • Increase in poverty • Food shortages • Spread of disease • Poor quality of life: • Literacy, birth rate, life expectancy all decline • Political corruption • “Success, like charity, covers a multitude of sins.”Alfred T. Mahan

  17. Controlling Country Part of Asia