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Revise for GCSE History: Superpower Relations, 1945-90

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Revise for GCSE History: Superpower Relations, 1945-90. This is the first of five revision topics. The Origins the Cold War Events in Europe, 1945-55 Hungary, Berlin and Cuba Attempts at Détente, 1963-79 The end of Détente, 1979-85 The end of the Cold War: 1985-90

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Revise for GCSE History: Superpower Relations, 1945-90

This is the first of five revision topics.

The Origins the Cold War

Events in Europe, 1945-55

Hungary, Berlin and Cuba

Attempts at Détente, 1963-79

The end of Détente, 1979-85

The end of the Cold War: 1985-90

How to use this Revision Presentation.

The Presentation is divided into four sections.

Spend about 10 minutes revising each section.

Write Revision Notes, label them clearly and keep them all in one place.

Return to this Presentation often to help embed your learning.

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Revise for GCSE History: Superpower Relations, 1945-90

There are four sections to this topic.

Cold War and Superpowers

Causes of Rivalry

Yalta and Potsdam

Who was to blame?

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Revise for GCSE History: Superpower Relations, 1945-90

Cold War and Superpowers

Cold War: conflict where there is no actual fighting.

It is generally applied to the rivalry between the USA and USSR that followed World War Two.

It started in Europe over the future of Germany (1945) and ended in Europe with the opening of the Berlin Wall (1989).

The main features of superpower rivalry were spying, the use of propaganda, an arms race, competition in space and on the sports field and obtaining allies through loans and aid.

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Revise for GCSE History: Superpower Relations, 1945-90

Causes of Rivalry

Political differences – USA capitalist, USSR communist.

UK, USA and France feared the spread of communism.

USSR / Stalin feared invasion from the west, designed to destroy communism.

UK had intervened in Russian civil war 1918-21.

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Revise for GCSE History: Superpower Relations, 1945-90

Yalta and Potsdam

Yalta Conference (Feb 45 – FDR, Stalin, Churchill)

Germany divided, democratic elections

UNO set up, Eastern Europe to be Soviet “sphere of influence”

Potsdam Conference (July 45 – Truman, Stalin, Atlee).

Agreed: Divide and demilitarise Germany, Germany to pay reparations,

UNO to be established, Free elections NOT agreed

Disagreed: Germany, Stalin wanted it divided and weak, with a communist govt.

Truman wanted a strong capitalist Germany to stop communist expansion.

East. Europe, Stalin wanted communist governments, controlled by Moscow.

Truman wanted free elections (free market economies?).

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Revise for GCSE History: Superpower Relations, 1945-90

Who was to Blame?

Events:

Stalin forced a communist government on Poland.

West demilitarised its occupied areas, Stalin did not.

Truman (very anti-communist) believed Stalin planned to take all of Europe.

16th July 45, USA successfully tests atomic bomb. Stalin felt angry and threatened.

Halfway through Potsdam, Churchill replaced by Atlee.

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