MLE in the Philippines: History and Possibilities Yolanda S. Quijano, ED.D. Director, Bureau of Elementary Education Department of Education, Pasig City
Promoting (MLE) Multilingual Education: Includingthe Excluded MLE refers to learning which begins in the first language/mother tongue and transitions to additional languages.
Language Issues • Date back from Spanish and American colonization and continue to the present • Proficiency in English will enhance global competitiveness, prepare Filipinos for employment overseas and provide better access to scientific and technical knowledge • Filipino is more culturally relevant and practical and has the value to foster national unity
Language Issues • Child learns best when primary education is in their first language or mother tongue. • Child is most comfortable learning in one’s first language and begins to conceptualize rather than merely memorize formulae and codes as one does when the language is not familiar.
First Iloilo Experiment: 1948-54 • Use Hiligaynon as MOI in Grds.1 & 2 • Children learning in Hiligaynon outperformed English-taught students in reading, math and social studies at end of 1st year • Children were able to transfer what they had learned to English after six months of exposure History of MLE in the Philippines
History … Second Iloilo Language Experiment (1961-64) • Test hypothesis that it is best to introduce only one non-native language at a time • Result shows that using both English and Filipino in Grade 1 was preferable to using only one language in Grds.1 & 2 • Introducing two languages as subjects in Grade 1 follows the educational psychology principle that “spaced practice and review” is usually more effective than “concentrated practice”
History …. Rizal Experiment: 1960-66 • Purpose: identify most effective time to begin teaching English as a subject and as MOI in elem. schools in which Tagalog was the MOI in Grd. 1 • Conclusions: • the longer English is used as the MOI, the more proficient the pupils were in using the language • little practical difference if written English will take place in Grds. 1 or 2 • good IMs are important
History …. First Language Component-Bridging Program (FLC-BP): 1986-93 • 6-year pilot project in Ifugao province that used Tuwali as MOI • Hypothesis: Children who acquire reading and writing skills in first language, accompanied by structured program of language arts that provides “bridge” to Filipino and English – will be more competent in all areas of study than those who learn in the two official languages
History … First Language Component-Bridging Program (FLC-BP) 3 • Three principles of the program: • Use the children’s first language for teaching and learning in Grds. 1 and 2 • Use children’s own cultural model of world to help them process information, understand concepts and form new ones • Introduce new concepts and skills by building on existing knowledge structures
History …. • Results • Children who began school in first language (Tuwali) with careful bridging to two second languages, were significantly more competent in all areas of study than children who did not • Use of Tuwali in bridging to Filipino is more effective than bridging to English
History …. Lingua Franca Project: 1999-2001 • Defines and implements a national bridging program to develop initial literacy • Lingua Franca or spoken language of region or community was used as bridge language
History …. Lingua Franca Project:1999-2001 • Experimental groups used three lingua francae: Ilokano, Tagalog and Cebuano as MOI in Grds. 1 and 2 • Control groups used English and Filipino in designated areas (bilingual policy)
History ….. • Lingua Franca Project • Results in Second Year of Implementation: • Experimental groups had numerically higher mean scores in Math, Science, Sibika at Kultura and Filipino than control groups except in English due pupils’ exposure in English for two years • Greater change shown in increased enthusiasm and self-confidence of pupils to participate in different classroom activities • Parents and community support was evident in preparation of local materials and in following up pupils assignments
History … Other Regional Lingua Franca or First Language Programs:1970s- 1980s • First language literacy projects in non-formal sector sponsord by Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL)-Philippines and by Translators Association of the Philippines (TAP) established in thirty Philippine languages • NGO-supported Lingua Franca projects for youth and adults • Variety of instructional and supplementary reading materials have been developed in lingua francae and first languages
History ….. Lubuagan MLE Program: The First in the Philippines, 1998 to Present • Goal: higher achievement, stronger English and Filipino acquisition, and lower drop out rate • 3 experimental class schools implementing Mother Tongue-Based MLE approach (use of MT to teach curriculum content and to teach English and Filipino as second and third languages) compared with three control class schools implementing the bilingual policy or using Filipino and English as MOI in designated areas
History …. Lubuagan MLE Program • Results • significant differences in the achievement levels for the different learning areas (Reading Math, English, Filipino, Makabayan) of pupils in experimental classes compared to the control groups • use of the MT strengthens the acquisition of the second and third languages
History ….. A CASE STUDY from CCIP-TEEP (Culture-Responsive Curriculum for Indigenous People-Third Elem. Educ. Proj.):2003-2007 • Objectives: • use mother tongue as bridge language for instruction to improve pupil performance • inculcate spiritual and civic values and take pride in one’s culture, traditions and values
History A CASE STUDY from CCIP-TEEP • 2 multigrade schools used Minanubu as MOI in Grds. 1 and 2 with subjects in Filipino and English while English and Filipino were the MOI in Grds. 3 – 6. • Results: • Pupils learning achievement show consistent and significant increases in Mean Percentage Scores in Division and National Achievement Tests. • Drop-out and repetition rates also decreased.
What did we learn from these studies? • Children learn to read more quickly and learn better in Math and Science when the MOI is their mother tongue. • Their cognitive skills continue to build, enabling greater ability to handle cognitively demanding tasks. • Children in classes that used mother tongue as MOI were observed to be actively participating in different classroom activities.
What did we learn from these studies? • Children who have learned to read and write in their first language, learn to speak, read and write in the second and third languages more quickly. • Learning first language or mother tongue strengthens acquisition of second and third languages. • Children who begun school in their first language with careful bridging to the two second languages were more competent in all areas of study than the children who did not.
Possibilities of MLE in the Philippines Expanded Lingua Franca Project toMother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education, a work in progress • Goal: Develop lifelong learners who are proficient in the use of their first language (L1), the national language (L2) and other languages (L3 and L4) and who take pride of their heritage and culture.
Possibilities ….. MT-Based MLE • Objectives: i) improve schools’ performance indicators: dropout, repetition, retention and completion rates among elementary pupils, ii) increase pupils’ academic performance through acquisition of oral fluency, reading and writing skills in their first language that provide them a bridge to learning Filipino and English enabling them to become more competent in all areas of study, and
Possibilities …. iii) demonstrate self-confidence and pride in one’s culture, tradition and values. • 104 schools reported implementing MLE for SY 2009-2010 • 53 teachers from Luzon & Visayas handling classes trained in Summer 2009 at UP • 8 major languages/mother tongues are being used: Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray-Samar
Possibilities ….. • DepED Policy Issuances • DepED Order No. 60, s. 2008 “ No. 3: The use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction beginning grade 1 is now recognized as the most effective way to improve student learning and shall also serve as a strong bridge language to learn a second language better and faster. No 4: All Bureau Directors are hereby directed to provide the field offices through the regional offices successful models of language of learning that have been developed and have resulted in the students’/learners’ higher cognitive development and faster acquisition of basic literacy.
Possibilities of MLE in the Philippines • DepED Order No. 60, s. 2008 No. 5: The utilization of MOOE, School Board Funds and other funds is hereby authorized for the following expenditures that may be required during the planning and implementation phases of using the mother tongue as a language of instruction: a) developing, printing and distributing teachers’/facilitators’, students’/learners’ workbooks, and other IMs; • training of teachers and hiring of specialists; and • other auxiliary services including advocacy work and community mobilization and evaluation and monitoring of learning outcomes.
Possibilities • DepED Order No. 74, s. 2009 “Institutionalizing Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education” No. 2. Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education, herein referred to as MLE, is the effective use of more than two languages for literacy and instruction. Enclosure No. 1: Fundamental Requirements for a Strong MLE Enclosure No. 2: MLE Bridging Plans A & B
Possibilities ….. • Technical Support from experts: 13 Educ. Supvs. from RO and DO and EPS from BEE trained on MLE at Payapa University, Thailand • Prepared STRATEGIC PLAN IN MLE by DepED and its partners, the 171 + Talaytayan Multilingual Inc., SIL, TTIs and other organizations who will also assist DepED for its implementation • Gunigundo Bill on MLE in Congress
One principle of MT-based MLEis that: Students learn best when they use what they already know (knowledge and experience of theirownlanguage) to learn what is new (new facts, new concepts, new languages). So MLE programmes focus on helping students build a good educational foundation in their first language and a goodbridgeto the new language. UNESCO, Bangkok, 2007