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Tekst- og litteraturhistorie i de engelsksprogede lande. Session Four: American Naturalism. Agenda. Writing America American Naturalism Steven Crane Øvelsesopgave. Writing America. Mark Twain, Innocents Abroad Sarah Orne Jewett, "A White Heron" Jack London, "The Law of Life”.

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agenda
Agenda
  • Writing America
  • American Naturalism
  • Steven Crane
  • Øvelsesopgave
writing america
Writing America
  • Mark Twain, Innocents Abroad
  • Sarah Orne Jewett, "A White Heron"
  • Jack London, "The Law of Life”
writing america1
Writing America
  • Nationalism: USA vs Europe
  • Regionalism: city vs country
  • Realism and Naturalism: individual vs society, man vs nature, against Romanticism
forms of realism
Forms of Realism
  • ”the truthful treatment of material” (Howells)
naturalism
Naturalism
  • Darwinism: Nature is a struggle in which the fittest survives
  • Social Darwinism: Society is competitive
  • Zola: ”The Experimental Novel”
mile zola the experimental novel
Émile Zola, ”The Experimental Novel”
  • In short, we must operate with characters, pasions, human and social data as the chemist and the physicist work on inert bodies, as the physiologist works on living bodies. Determinism governs everything. It is scientific investigation; it is experimental reasoning that combats one by one the hypotheses of the idealists and will replace novels of pure imagination by novels of observations and experiment
american naturalism
American Naturalism
  • A number of American writers adopted aspects of this pessimistic form of realism, this so-called naturalistic view of humankind, though each writer incorporated such naturalism into his or her work in individual ways, to different degrees, and combined with other perspectives. (The Norton Anthology of American Literature, Vol. C, ”Introduction”)
velsesopgave
Øvelsesopgave
  • Stephen Crane, "The Open Boat" (1897) and American Naturalism
  • Speaking of Naturalism, The Norton Anthology of American Literature, Sixth Edition, Vol. C, states that,

“A number of American writers adopted aspects of this pessimistic form of realism, this so-called naturalistic view of humankind, though each writer incorporated such naturalism into his or her work in individual ways, to different degrees, and combined with other perspectives.” (9)

  • Analyse  Stephen Crane's short story "The Open Boat" as an example of American naturalism.
american naturalism steven crane
American Naturalism: Steven Crane
  • How does Crane adopt the ”naturalistic view of humankind”?
  • With which ”other perspectives” does Crane combine Naturalism?
  • How?
  • Setting, characters, plot, imagery, point of view