Immanuel Kant. categorical imperative. how do we determine morality?. morality is derived from duty moral principles are intrinsically valid moral principles must be obeyed in all circumstances all moral obligations must be tested through the categorical imperative .
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maxim: principle or an action
“act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law.”
ex: lying about harboring jewish people in your attic
“we should never act in such a way that we treat Humanity, whether in ourselves or in others, as a means only but always as an end in itself.”
ex: kidnapping to get ransom money
“act in accordance with the maxims of a member giving universal laws for a merely possible kingdom of ends"