7th Annual Academic Advising Conference Other Ways to Win: Is Baccalaureate Education Right for Every Teen? Ken Gray Professor Emeritus, Penn State firstname.lastname@example.org
Presentation Objectives • Increase effectiveness of academic advising via. • Challenging the “One Way to Win” mantra • Demonstrating “Other Ways to Wins”: • Stressing the importance of career maturity and tentative career planning. • Providing a six step framework for career/academic advising.
Today’s Freshman 66% Say that the chief benefit from college is increased earnings. 64% Have “some” or “major” concerns about the cost of college. http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/norms06.php
24 Ninth Graders 7 drop out (29%) 5 graduate & go to work (21%) 12 Enroll in college (50%, not 70%) 4 Drop out freshman year 7 Graduate in five years 3 Take “gray collar” jobs, nationally 4 Win the one way to win game
The fact is that large numbers of college graduates leave school as unsure of what they will do “when they grow up” (except perhaps continue to go to school) as they were when they started.How CA Postsecondary Education Systems Address Workforce Development (2007). CA Postsecondary Education commission
Uncertain Times • Inflation adjusted earnings for 4-year college graduates are less today than in 1972. • The average student loan debt is 20K • Growth of “Gray Collar” workers • Top 1% pay 40% of income taxes in U.S. 30% of highest income earners do not have a degree • One third of young adults lack health insurance. Almost half of temporary workers are age 18-34.
Uncertainty in the Information Age General Labor market implications . Few new occupations. Electronic/IT work is the easiest to off-shore Volunteerism Certifications more important than degrees Less than fulltime employment Telecommunting
Problem # 1The One Way to Win Paradigm • Get a four year college degree 98% agree, 72% plan on grad school • In order to insure economic success Three of top 4 reasons for going to college • In the professional ranks Professional/managerial 65% Technical 6%
University Graduates Employment 2000-2012 Supply Demand Employed University Grads 1,439,264 670,000 47% Only 13% of all jobs will require just a BA degree (Dept of labor projections to 2016).
The “Other Way to Win” Message • The “one way to win” philosophy is nonsense. It insures the majority of teens will fail. • There are Other Ways to Win. Technical education is a better way for many from the academic middle. • All students should go on to postsecondary education when and if they can benefit from the experience. • Career maturity is as important today as academic maturity.
The Other Way to Win • Technician and Middle Skill Employment.
The High Skills/High Wage Workplace 40% 30% Ratio 1-3-2-4
What Types of Employees are Expected to Be in Short Supply Over the Next Years? Source: “2005 Skills Gap Report: A Survey of the American Manufacturing Workforce” by National Association of Manufacturing
Aerospace Career Technical Positions (partial) • Inspector • Technician, Electronic Research & Calibration • Technician, Industrial Electronic Systems • Technician, Instrumentation Controls • Fabricator, Plastic, Senior • Electrician, Maintenance Industrial • Laboratory Assistant • Mechanic, Heavy Duty Truck • Mechanic, Solid Propellant Development • Operator, Solid Rocket Motor • Tool, Jig and Fixture Builder • Technician, Vacuum Braze Furnace • Technician, Test and Assembly • Technician, Rocket Test "A" • Operator, Solid Rocket Motor "A"” • Operator, Solid Rocket Motor “B • Technician, Primary Standards - Mechanical • Technician, Inertial and Telemetry Systems • Sheet Metal, Journeyman • Process Camera Technician • Photographer, Technical • Photographer, Still • Photographic Laboratory Processor • Photo Etch Processor • Metalsmith • Metalsmith, Experimental • Mechanic, Plastics • Mechanic, Maintenance • Mechanic, Crane • Mechanic, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration • Machinist, Journeyman • Machine Operator • Machine Tool Repairer & Rebuilder • Inspector, Tooling • Inspector, Radiographic/NDT • Grinder, Tool and Cutter • Firefighter • Fire Service Technician • Electro-Mechanical Bench Fabricator • Chemical Waste Technician
High Skill/ High Wage Occupational Skill not Degrees Provide Labor Market Advantage Occupational Skills Academic Skills Work Ethic & Work Ethics Low Skill/ Low Wage Other Ways to Win
Problem #2Widespread Career Immaturity The Need to Help Teens “Get Real”
All my life I’ve always wanted to be somebody, but I see now I should have been more specific. Wagner, 1986 Other Ways to Win
Old Advice that is Now Bad Advice • Postpone career choices as long as possible - You don’t want to close any doors. • Do not worry about career/college major indecision - you will decide that in college.
Student Outcomes Goals of Career Development Programs • Help teens make the best career decision they can based on what they know “now” about themselves and the world of work. • If this is a good decision, the next decision will be even better.
Six Steps to Postsecondary Success Step One What is your goal Why are you here Graduation or graduation and a job?
Six Steps to PostsecondarySuccess Step Two Have a Back-up Plan Plan A & Plan B
Six Steps to PostsecondarySuccess Step Three Reach a Shared Decision
Six Steps to PostsecondarySuccess Step Four Develop at least a tentative career plan
Six Steps to PostsecondarySuccess Step Five • Be willing to consider all the options! • Prep year • One Year Technical Certificate • Two Year Technology Degree • Four Year College • Military, Apprenticeship, Employment
Six Steps to PostsecondarySuccess Step Six Be Realistic Revisit Plan A & B
Wake Up Calls. How to know when plan B should be plan A. The Obvious Wake-Up Calls • High School Grades & Attendance • College Admission Test Scores • Lack of any Career Direction (“I don’t know what I want to do.”) • School has always been a source of conflict (“I hate school.”)
The Not So Obvious Wake-Up Calls • Generally evasive about after high school • Avoids taking the college entrance test (SAT, ACT) • Never gets around to filling out College applications. • Applies to colleges based on the difficulty of the application, where friends are going, nice climate, good skiing, etc.., etc.., etc..
The Ethical Dilemma • Institutional goals versus what is good for the client. • Nutritional lies or reality check.
References • Allen, D. (2008). Career Maturity and College Persistence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Penn State University. • Gray K. & Herr, E. (2006) Other Ways to Win. 3ed. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, CA. • Gray, K. (2008) Getting Real: Helping Teens Find Their Future. 2nd. Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks CA • Visher, M., Bhandari, R., & Medrich, M., (2004, October). High school career exploration programs: Do they work? Phi DeltaKappan , 86(2), 135-138.