Planning a healthy diet
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Planning A Healthy Diet . Chapter 2. Objectives for Chapter 2. Provide a definition of healthy eating and the principles involved. List the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans categories. Utilizing MyPyramid, to evaluate your diet. Interpret the Nutrition Facts panel on a food label.

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Objectives for Chapter 2

  • Provide a definition of healthy eating and the principles involved.

  • List the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans categories.

  • Utilizing MyPyramid, to evaluate your diet.

  • Interpret the Nutrition Facts panel on a food label.


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Principles and Guidelines

  • Diet-Planning Principles

    • Adequacy (dietary)—providing sufficient energy and essential nutrients for healthy people

    • Balance (dietary)—consuming the right proportion of foods

    • kcalorie (energy) control—balancing the amount of foods and energy to sustain physical activities and metabolic needs

    • Nutrient density—measuring the nutrient content of a food relative to its energy content

    • Moderation (dietary)—providing enough but not too much of a food or nutrient

    • Variety (dietary)—eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups


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2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans are most recent nutrition and physical activity recommendations.

  • Established in 1980

  • Set by the US Dept. of Agriculture and Dept. of Health and Human Services

  • To promote health and reduce risk of chronic disease through diet and physical activity

  • Published every five years

  • Targeted to the general public over 2 years of age


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Dietary Guidelines for Americans at a Glance

  • Adequate Nutrients within Energy Needs

    • Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods,

    • Don’t exceed daily calories needed to maintain a healthy weight.

    • People over age 50. Consume vit B12.

  • Weight management

    • Maintain a balance between the amount of calories consumed and expended.

    • Those who need to lose weight. Aim for a slow, steady weight loss


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2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans at a Glance

  • Physical Activity

    • Be physically active,

    • spend at least 30 minutes in moderately intense physical activity each day.

    • Include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises for muscle strength and endurance.

    • Children and adolescents. Engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity on most, days.

  • Food groups to encourage

    • at least 3 servings of whole grains,

    • 3 of fat-free or low-fat milk products,

    • 2 cups of fruit,

    • and at least 2 ½ cups of colorful vegetables each day


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2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans at a Glance

  • Fats

    • Keep dietary fat between 20-35% of daily calories and

    • choose vegetable oils, nuts, and fish for heart-healthy, unsaturated fats.

    • <10% of calories from saturated fatty acids & < 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid as low as possible.

  • Carbohydrates

    • Choose whole grains, fruits, and vegetables more often than sugary soft and fruit drinks, bakery items.


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2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans at a Glance

  • Sodium

    • Keep daily sodium intake less than 2,300 mg (1 tsp salt).

    • Individuals with hypertension, blacks, and middle-aged and older adults. Aim to consume no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day

    • meet the potassium recommendation (4,700 mg/day) with food.

  • Alcoholic Beverages

    • Avoid alcohol if pregnant, lactating, under 21, or have certain medical conditions.

    • one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.

  • Food Safety

    • Properly clean, prepare, and store foods to avoid microbial food-borne illness.


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What Is a Food Guide Pyramid

Visual diagrams that provide variety of food recommendations to help create a healthy diet

  • Food groups and relative proportions

  • Various countries have food guidance systems based on their food supply and cultural food preferences.

  • MyPyramid is the most recent food guidance system for Americans, released by the USDA in 2005.






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How to Use MyPyramid

  • How much from each food group should you, personally, be eating?

  • The www.MyPyramid.gov interactive website gives you the number of servings to eat from each food group based on your daily calorie needs.

    • Your calorie needs are based on your age, gender, and activity level.


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My Pyramid Food Groups

  • Orange – Grains, make ½ whole grains

  • Green – Vegetables, vary your veggies

  • Red - Fruits

  • Blue – Milk, get you calcium rich foods

  • Purple – meat and beans, go lean with protein



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Diet-Planning Guides

  • USDA Food Guide

    • Nutrient Density

      • Foods can be of high, medium or low nutrient density.

      • Must consider energy needs when choosing these foods

    • Discretionary Kcalorie Allowance

      • Calculated by subtracting the amount of energy required to meet nutrient needs from the total energy allowance

      • For weight loss, a person should avoid consuming discretionary kcalories.



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Diet-Planning Guides

  • USDA Food Guide

    • Serving Equivalents

      • Cups are used to measure servings of fruits, vegetables, and milk.

      • Ounces are used to measure servings of grains and meats.

      • Visualization with common objects can be used to estimate portion sizes.

    • Mixtures of Foods

      • Foods that fall into two or more groups

      • Examples are casseroles, soups, and sandwiches


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Diet-Planning Guides

  • USDA Food Guide

    • Vegetarian Food Guide

      • Reliance on plant foods such as grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, nuts and seeds

      • Similar food groups and servings sizes

    • Ethnic food choices fit into the food pyramid

      • Asian examples

      • Mediterranean examples

      • Mexican examples


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Food Terminologies

  • Processed foods – treated to change their physical, chemical and microbiological properties

  • Fortified foods – additional of nutrients that are not original to the product

  • Refined foods – stripping of whole grain

  • Enriched foods – addition of nutrients lost during processing


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What Is a Food Label and Why Is It Important?

The food label tells you what’s in the package.

  • To help consumers make informed food choices

  • Since 1920s, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated that every packaged food be labeled with:

    • Name of the food

    • Net weight

    • Name and address of manufacturer or distributor

    • List of ingredients in descending order by weight


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    What Is a Food Label and Why Is It Important?

    • Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 mandated that labels now also show:

      • Uniform nutrition information and serving sizes

      • Health claims that are accurate and science-based

      • How a serving of food fits into an overall daily diet

      • Uniform definitions for descriptive labels terms such as “fat-free” and “light”

    • Exemptions from a Nutrition Facts panel on label:

      • Deli items, bakery foods, ready-to-eat foods prepared and sold in restaurants, or produced by small businesses


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    Food Labels

    • Daily values

      • 2000 kcal per day

      • Reference male who weighs 154 lbs

      • Reference female who weighs 126 lbs

    • The ingredient list

      • All ingredients listed

      • Listed by weight

    • Serving sizes

      • Facilitate comparison among foods

      • Need to compare to quantity of food actually eaten

      • Do not necessarily match the food guide pyramid


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    Food Labels

    • Nutrition Facts

      • Listed by quantity and percentage standards per serving, called Daily Values

      • kCalories listed as total kcalories and kcalories from fat

      • Fat listed by total fat, saturated fat, and trans fat

      • Cholesterol

      • Sodium

      • Carbohydrate listed by total carbohydrate, starch, sugars, and fiber

      • Protein

      • Vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium are listed in % DV only.



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    On the Label: Labeling Claims

    Nutrient Content Claims:

    • Describe the level or amount of a nutrient in food product

      Health Claims:

    • Describe a relationship between a food or dietary compound and a disease or health-related condition

      Structure/Function claims:

  • Describe how a nutrient or dietary compound affects the structure or function of the human body




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    Food Labels

    • Nutrient Claims

      • Must meet FDA definitions

      • No implied claims

      • General terms include free, good source of, healthy, high, less, light or lite, low, more, and organic.

      • Energy terms include kcalorie-free, low kcalorie, and reduced calorie.

      • Fat and cholesterol terms include percent fat-free, fat-free, low fat, less fat, saturated fat-free, low saturated fat, less saturated fat, trans fat-free, cholesterol-free, low cholesterol, less cholesterol, extra lean, and lean.

      • Carbohydrate terms include high fiber and sugar-free.

      • Sodium terms include sodium-free and salt-free, low sodium, and very low sodium.


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    Vegetarian Diets

    Types of vegetarian Diets

    • Lactovegetarian – include dairy products

    • Lact-ovo-vegetarian – include dairy and egg products

    • Vegans – strictly plant based

    • Flexitarian – sometimes include poultry and meet products


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    Vegetarian Diets

    • Health Benefits of Vegetarian Diets -

      • Healthy body weights are common due to high intakes of fiber and low intakes of fat.

      • Blood pressure is often lower due to lower body weights, low-fat and high-fiber diets, and plenty of fruits and vegetables.

      • Lower incidence of heart disease due to high-fiber diets, eating monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low intakes of dietary cholesterol

        • Inclusion of soy products like tofu and tempeh

      • Lower incidence of cancer due to high intakes of fruits and vegetable


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    Vegetarian Diet Planning

    • Protein

      • Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume animal-derived products and thus high-quality protein.

      • Meat replacements and textured vegetable protein can be used.

    • Iron - Iron-rich vegetables and fortified grain products consumed with foods that are high in vitamin C can help vegetarians meet iron needs.

    • Zinc - Consuming legumes, whole grains, and nuts can provide zinc to those who do not consume meat.


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    Vegetarian Diet Planning

    • Calcium

      • Calcium is not an issue for the lactovegetarian.

      • Calcium-rich foods should be consumed.

    • Vitamin B12

      • Vegans may not receive enough B12 from the diet.

      • Consumption of fortified products or supplementation may be necessary.

    • Vitamin D can come from sunlight exposure or fortified foods.

    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Food sources include flaxseed, walnuts, soybeans, and their oils.


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    See For yourself – Extra Credit

    • Go to your local supermarket or grocery store and compile a list of 5 examples of health claims made on the labels of various foods. Record the name of the food, the actual claim, and any information supporting the health claim that is listed on the packaging.

    • Go to Mypyramid.gov to obtain your personalized food guide


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