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Textiles. Natural Man-made Synthetic . Fibers. Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like.

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  • Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like.
  • All fibers have their own characteristics and properties, depending upon their source, chemical composition, and quality. No fiber is perfect. Each has some good, fair, and poor qualities that may make it suitable or unsuitable for certain uses.
fibers con t
Fibers con’t
  • The basic characteristics of a fiber can be slightly altered but never totally changed. The fiber may be short, long, straight, or curly. These fiber characteristics greatly affect the appearance, and performance of the fabrics they are made into.
  • The Characteristics you look for in children’s clothing is totally different that you would look for in evening wear for yourself.
  • Thus an understanding of fibers, yarns, and fabrics if basic to the study of apparel.
  • Formed by a continuous strand of fibers usually twisted together.
  • Are formed when yarns are combined. Fabrics may be constructed using a variety of different methods such as:
  • Weaving
  • Knitting
  • Felting
fiber sources
Fiber Sources
  • Natural- Plant or Animal fiber that grows in nature. Two categories: Cellulosic Fibers (plant), and Protein Fibers (animal). Include: Cotton, Linen, Wool, Silk, Ramie, Hemp, Jute, Bamboo, Leather
fiber sources con t
Fiber Sources (con’t)
  • Man-made- Made from a Natural material called Cellulose. The cellulose is turned into a liquid and poured through a spinneret. Includes: Acetate, Rayon, Triacetate, Lyocell.
  • Spinneret- Like a showerhead, that sprays out chemicals that harden into long strands called filament fibers.
fiber sources con t1
Fiber Sources (con’t)
  • Synthetic- Made from chemicals, petroleum, coal, and natural gas. All of these fibers are manufactured from different combinations of petroleum, natural gas, air and water. They are poured through a spinneret. Include: Acrylic, Polyester, Nylon, Modacrylic, Spandex, and Olefin.
fiber structures
Fiber Structures
  • Staple Fibers- Short & Fuzzy- Usually between 1” and 4” long. These tiny fibers already exist in a plant or animal. The fibers just need to be cleaned up, sorted, and purified before they are used for fabrics.
    • Short
    • Look lumpy and bumpy under a microscope
    • Include all natural fibers, except silk
fiber structures con t
Fiber Structures (con’t)
  • Filament Fibers- Long and smooth (like fishing line)
    • Include all man-made, and synthetic fibers
    • Include Silk

Spinneret- All man-made and Synthetic fibers are poured through a Spinneret to create the fiber.

natural fibers
Natural Fibers
  • Cotton
  • Flax (Linen)
  • Wool
  • Silk
  • Hemp
  • Bamboo
  • Ramie
  • Leather
natural fibers sources
Natural Fibers- Sources
  • Plants and animals sources that grow in nature
  • Cellulosic- Plant fibers
  • Cotton
  • Linen (flax)
  • Ramie
  • Hemp
  • Bamboo
  • Ramie
  • Protein- Animal fibers
  • Wool
  • Silk
  • Leather
general characteristics of natural fibers
General Characteristics of Natural Fibers
  • Absorbent- able to take up moisture
  • Porous- able to breathe, air passes through
  • Biodegradable- able to break down
  • Most wrinkle easily
  • Tend to be more expensive
  • Staple fibers which look
cotton advantages
Cotton advantages
  • Strong, durable
  • Soft
  • Absorbs moisture
  • Breathes well
  • Washes easily
  • Dyes well
cotton disadvantages
Cotton disadvantages
  • Mildews
  • Does not spring back into shape
  • Wrinkles easily
  • Burns readily
  • Shrinks
clothing fashion uses







Clothing/Fashion uses
care of cotton
Care of Cotton
  • Wash in washer and dry
  • Iron at high temperature
flax linen advantages
Flax (Linen) Advantages
  • Absorbs moisture
  • Comfortable in warm weather
  • Washes easily
linen disadvantages
Linen disadvantages
  • Mildews
  • Burns easily
clothing fashion uses1
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Blouses
  • Dresses
  • Skirts
  • Suits
care of linen
Care of Linen
  • Wash or Dry Clean, CHECK LABEL
  • Washing will change the “hand of the fabric making it soft and wrinkled in appearance
  • Iron at HIGH temperature with moisture
wool advantages
Wool Advantages
  • WARM
  • Durable
  • Resilient (returns to original shape quickly)
  • Resists wrinkling
  • Fire Retardant
wool disadvantages
Wool Disadvantages
  • Requires special care
  • Shrinks sometimes if washed, or dried in dryer
  • Absorbs odors
  • Requires protection against insects
clothing fashion uses2
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Knit garments
  • Sweaters
  • Gloves
  • Skirts
  • Coats
  • Sportswear
  • Socks
  • Suits
  • slacks
care of wool
Care of Wool
  • Dry Clean or Hand Wash and Dry flat
  • Iron at low temperature
silk advantages
Silk Advantages
  • Smooth
  • Lustrous
  • Strong
  • Dries quickly
silk disadvantages
Silk Disadvantages
  • Shows water spots
  • Iron at low temperature
  • Expensive
care of silk
Care of silk
  • Dry clean or hand wash, check label
  • Iron at low temperature
clothing fashion uses3
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Skirts
  • Blouses
  • Dresses
  • Neckties
  • Scarves
  • Lingerie
  • Sweaters
man made fibers
Man-made Fibers
  • Acetate
  • Lyocell (Tencel®)
  • Rayon
man made fibers1
Man-made Fibers
  • Made from petrochemicals
  • Characteristics
    • Hydrophobic (water resistant)
    • Promote static cling
    • Heat Sensitive
    • Many types pill
    • Most are wrinkle resistant
acetate advantages
Acetate Advantages
  • Soft
  • Drapeable
  • Dries quickly
  • Resistant to shrinking
acetate disadvantages
Acetate Disadvantages
  • Can wrinkle
  • Low abrasion resistance
  • Heat sensitive
  • Damaged by acetone
clothing fashion uses4
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Skirts
  • Blouses
  • Dresses
  • Scarves
  • Linings
synthetic fibers
Synthetic Fibers
  • Acrylic
  • Nylon
  • Polyester
  • Spandex (Lycra)
  • Aramid (Kevlar, Nomex)
  • Olefin
  • Triacetate
  • Modacrylic
acrylic advantages
Acrylic Advantages
  • Soft
  • Warm
  • Wool-like
  • Light weight
  • Wrinkle resistant
  • Resistant to moths and sunlight
acrylic disadvantages
Acrylic Disadvantages
  • Pills
  • Static electricity
  • Heat sensitive
care of acrylic
Care of Acrylic
  • Dry Cleaned or laundered
  • Iron at low temperature
clothing fashion uses5
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Sweaters
  • Knit garments
  • Faux Fur
  • Coats
  • Pants
  • Skirts
  • Shoe soles
nylon advantages
Nylon Advantages
  • Very Strong
  • Resilient
  • Lustrous
  • Dries quickly
nylon disadvantages
Nylon disadvantages
  • May yellow or gray
  • Heat Sensitive
  • Low moisture absorbency
care of nylon
Care of Nylon
  • Easily laundered
  • Iron at low temperature
clothing fashion uses6
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Sportswear
  • Jackets
  • Raincoats
  • Backpacks
  • Purses
polyester advantages
Polyester advantages
  • Resistant to abrasion
  • Dries quickly
  • Blends well with other fibers
  • Retains heat-set pleats and creases
polyester disadvantages
Polyester disadvantages
  • Absorbs oily stains
  • Low absorbency of moisture
care of polyester
Care of Polyester
  • Easily laundered
  • Needs little or no pressing
clothing fashion uses7
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Pants
  • Shirts
  • Suits
  • Sportswear
  • Skirts
rayon advantages
Rayon advantages
  • Soft and comfortable
  • High moisture absorbency
  • drapeable
rayon disadvantages
Rayon disadvantages
  • May wrinkle or shrink unless treated
  • May mildew
clothing fashion uses8
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Dresses
  • Skirts
  • Lingerie
  • Blouses
care of rayon
Care of Rayon
  • Usually dry cleaned, sometimes washable
  • Iron at low temperature
spandex advantages
Spandex advantages
  • Excellent elasticity and recovery
  • Stronger and more durable than rubber
  • Light weight
  • Resistant to body oils
spandex disadvantages
Spandex disadvantages
  • Damaged by chlorine bleach
  • Damaged by heat
clothing fashion uses9
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Pants
  • Shirts
  • Jeans
  • Sportswear
  • Underwear
  • Socks
  • Bras
  • Tights
aramid kevlar nomex advantages
Aramid (Kevlar & Nomex) advantages
  • Exceptional strength
  • Exceptional heat and flame resistance
  • Resistant to stretch and abrasion
clothing fashion uses10
Clothing/Fashion uses
  • Kevlar
    • Bullet Proof Vests
    • Cut/Heat and Chemical resistant Gloves
  • Nomex
    • Fireman Uniforms
    • Racing Apparel