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1 st EEA/EIONET workshop – Maritime 26 Oct 2010 at European Environment Agency, Copenhagen. Maritime spatial planning – approaches for effectiveness evaluation Søren Anker Pedersen, ETC/Water. What is Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP)? MSP and fisheries in German offshore waters

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1st EEA/EIONET workshop – Maritime

26 Oct 2010 at European Environment Agency, Copenhagen

Maritime spatial planning

– approaches for effectiveness evaluation

Søren Anker Pedersen, ETC/Water


What is Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP)?

MSP and fisheries in German offshore waters

(The EMPAS project – MSP in practice)


1) What is Maritime Spatial Planning(MSP)?

MSP a tool to:

- optimize the human used of the marine ecosystem

- optimize benefits from ecosystem goods and services

The purpose…

Achieve “Good Environmental Status” within the marine ecosystems, while promoting long-term sustainable use of marine resources

- within the framework and “guidance” of EU Maritime Policy


MSP does not lead to a one-time plan.

It is a continuing, iterative process that learns and adapts over time.

Figure from: Guide on MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING – A Step-by-Step Approach toward Ecosystem-based Management

by Charles Ehler and Fanny Douvere, UNESCO, 2009.


The PlanCoast Project


Step 1: Assessing the context and establishing a general framework for IMSP

Step 2: Drawing up a guiding vision

Step 3: Refining the stocktake and mapping

Step 4: Analysis: identifying issues and problems

Step 5: Developing solutions for the problems identified

Step 6: Drawing up a plan

Step 7: Implementation

Step 8: Evaluation


2. MSP and fisheries in German offshore waters

(The EMPAS project – MSP in practice)



Baltic Sea









North Sea


Environmentally Sound Fisheries Management in Marine Protected Areas(EMPAS) project 2006-2008

  • German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN)
  • responsible for:
  • selection,
  • designation,
  • management ICES advice on fisheries management in N2K sites


NATURA 2000-protected habitats and species in the North Sea

Habitat-Directive (FFH-Directive) and the Bird Directive (BD)


Sandbank, Reefs

Benthic commuities

FFH-Annex II Marine Mammals

Harbour porpoise, Harbour Seal, Grey Seal

Shad, Twaite Shad, Hounting, River Lamprey, Sea Lamprey, Sturgeon

FFH-Annex II Fish Species

Red-throated Diver, Black-throated Diver, Terns, Common Scoter, Long-tailed duck, etc.

BD Annex I and migratory bird species


Natura 2000 sites

Dogger Bank

Sylt Outer Reef

Borkum Reef


Protected habitat types:

"sandbanks" and "reefs"


The EMPAS Project: Targets

For each designated Natura 2000 site in the German EEZ:

  • 1. Mapping of fishing activities and effort;
  • 2. Analysis of impact of fishing activities on habitats and species;
  • 3. Identify conflicts between fishing activities and nature conservation objectives/targets;
  • Develop management options


Sylt Outer Reef

Fock et al., 2007



Fock et al., 2007


Benthic habitats and typical species:

  • Destructive effects of bottom contacting gear

Conflict analysis: Fishing activities

and nature conservation targets

Impact of bottom trawls on "sandbanks" and "reefs"


Fine scale distribution of fishing activities

  • Consultation and cooperation with fishers:
  • Fishing track plotters (GPS), sea charts, and personal experiences
  • Explain fisheries data and misunderstandings
  • Contribute VMS data
  • and fishery information
  • Find solutions to conflicts

The EMPAS project results and the future

  • From no-change option to partial and full closures for fisheries
  • The EMPAS results are starting points to develop a management strategy for Natura 2000 sites
  • Final management plans have not yet been developed/implemented
  • The revised CFP should harmonize different national approaches/proposals to Natura 2000 management

Maritime Spatial Planning German EEZ North Sea

2020: 12,000 MW

2030: 25,000 MW

Berkenhagen et al. (2010)


MSP and fisheries in the German EEZ

  • - cumulative losses and benefits
  • Wind farm approvals case-by-case overlooks the cumulative impact of planned and projected wind farms on fisheries
  • Better understanding of the impact of wind farms establishments on individual vessels, fishing association and harbour towns in future

Useful information in MSP and trade-off evaluation are:

  • cumulative losses (benefit losses)
  • costs of displacement of fishing effort to other areas
  • habitats affected by the wind farm influence species
  • possible benefits:
  • a) new species attracted by the different habitats,
  • b) marine aquaculture or
  • c) the closure leads to increasing catch possibilities outside
  • cumulative effects of closing many areas for fishing
  • (wind farms, military areas, shipping lines, Natura 2000 areas, etc.)
  • Uniform approach to data collection, harmonization and classification
  • Coherent ecological information
  • Coherent information on human activities
  • Identify scientific principles/methodologies for e.g. assessing multiple pressures, environmental status assessment etc.
  • Link economic values to ecosystem benefits
  • Considering economical and social impacts in line with ecological impacts will increase the willingness for seeking a sound and sustainable compromise