What could we want to know about rocks? • What is in rocks? • How are rocks made? • What kinds of rocks are there? • How do we classify rocks? • What are the characteristics of rocks? • What can we use rocks for?
What is in rocks? • Rocks contain a variety of minerals • Minerals are crystals made of one substance • The crystals in rocks are usually very small • These minerals can come the earth’s surface or inside the earth • Some examples of minerals found in rocks • Quartz, Calcite, Diamond, Halite (rock salt) • Metals: Copper, Silver, Gold , Iron
Can you match the mineral with its name? Quartz, Copper,Calcite, Silver 2. 1. • Calcite • Copper • Silver • Quartz 3. 4.
How are rocks made? • Rocks need either extreme heat or extreme pressure to form • Extreme heat happens when the rock is around lava or near the earth’s core • Extreme pressure happens when the rocks has lots of matter above it • Both factors can be involved (more pressure means more heat)
How are rocks classified? • Rocks are classified based on how they are made and what is in them 1. Igneous Rock (Made from heat and magma) 2. Sedimentary Rock (Made from rock bits and pressure) 3. Metamorphic Rock (Rock transformed by heat or pressure)
Igneous Rock • Igneous rock is made when magma from the earth’s core is cooled- Magma is rock in liquid form • The type of rock made and the size of the mineral crystals depends on how fast it is cooled • Examples of igneous rock: granite, obsidian, basalt
Sedimentary Rock • Sedimentary rock is made when small particles (sediment) is laid down and put under a lot of pressure for a long time • Sediment can be sand, mud, seashells, bones and other small mineral particles • Sedimentary rock is usually found in areas that used to be under water or ice. Why?
Metamorphic Rock • When there is enough heat or pressure to change a rock from its original form, it is called metamorphic rock- metamorph means change from (Greek) • This usually happens through pressure caused by movement of the earth’s crust • Examples: slate comes from shale, gneiss comes from granite, marble comes from limestone
Bibliography of Images • http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/calcite.jpg • http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/quartz_crystal.jpg • http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/silver.jpg • http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/copper.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Igneous_rock_Santoroni_Greece.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/59/GLMsed.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Migma_ss_2006.jpg • http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/images/granite.jpg • http://localism.com/image_store/uploads/1/0/5/6/7/ar124095492776501.jpg • http://farm1.static.flickr.com/125/424185912_b2f6ebd446.jpg • http://flickr.com/photo_zoom.gne?id=142222402&size=o • http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1278/906221567_474cd8fb17.jpg?v=0 • http://mail.ab.mec.edu/~mdoiron/010B7EF2-000F6E99.2/basalt.jpg • http://www.minimegeology.com/shop/images/Obsidian_W.jpg • http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS_NttKFzdNXvsFbRl9xgzQ2oUT0mx4MNwwePToYjEvTm61sa7V4Q&t=1 • http://skywalker.cochise.edu/wellerr/rocks/6gneiss-folds58.jpg • http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/295560main_mro20081204-un-516.jpg • http://www.minimegeology.com/shop/wpimages/SedRock_Crop.gif