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MAXI Status and ISS Science. August 2 2 , 2003 Max-Planck Inst. Masaru Matsuoka Matsuoka.masaru@nasda.go.jp NASDA(JAXA * from October 1,2003) Tsukuba Space Center. MAXI TMM Overview. * Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (=ISAS+NASDA+NAL). 358 mm. Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI).

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maxi status and iss science

MAXI Status and ISS Science

August 22, 2003 Max-Planck Inst.

Masaru Matsuoka

Matsuoka.masaru@nasda.go.jp

NASDA(JAXA* from October 1,2003)

Tsukuba Space Center

MAXI TMM Overview

* Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (=ISAS+NASDA+NAL)

monitor of all sky x ray image maxi

358 mm

Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI)

MAXI

GSC

GSC

SSC

- To be placed on the International Space Station in 2008 ?

  • Energy range is 0.5 – 30 keV for combined CCD camera
  • and Gas Slit Camera(SSC:200 cm2 ,GSC:5350 cm2)
slide3

Now MAXI is in a final phase for FM.

GSC: 2-30 keV

SSC: 0.5-10 keV

Weight: 490 kg

MAXI Overview and Scanning Process

slide4

MAXI Sensitivity

Sensitivity (mCrabs)

SSC

GSC

Systematic error level

Dwell Time (seconds)

maxi sensitivity

Appendix A

MAXISensitivity

MAXI will monitor

extra-galactic

objects as well as

Galactic sources

above 1 m Crab.

One Orbit

(30 sources)

O

n

e

D

a

y

(

1

0

0

s

o

u

r

c

e

s

)

O

n

e

W

e

e

k

(

1

0

0

0

s

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u

r

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)

slide6

X-ray Nova Light Curves and MAXI Detectability

X-ray spectra are detectable every day

Flux (Crab unit)

One Crab

= 2.4x10-9 erg sec-1 cm-2

Detectable in one day

One m Crab

Detectable in one week

Time (days after outburst)

Tanaka & Shibazaki, Annu. Rev.Astron. Astrophys. 34 (1996), 607

slide7

SIMULATION of GSC observations

ISS one orbit(90 min)2 months

~ 1000 sources incld. AGN

~30 Galactic sources

maxi mission
MAXI Mission
  • Dynamics of Galactic and Extra-galactic Objects
    • Close Binary X-ray sources(Black holes, Neutron stars)
    • Active Galactic Nuclei(Giant black holes, Cosmic jets)
  • Creation of Data Base for Variable X-ray Sources
    • hours, days, months, year since 1960 era!
  • Large Scale Mapping of Diffuse X-ray Sky
    • Soft X-ray Sky (Galactic ridge structure with atomic compon’t)
    • CXB (Distribution of distant active galactic nuclei) Fluctuation detection limit: a few % @ 1.5 deg.2for two years.
slide9

A Light Curve of An X-Ray Nova during Rising Phase

GS 2000+25

with Ginga-ASM

Tsunemi et al . ApJ.L 337 (1989), L81

slide10

Long-term X-ray Intensity Variations in Cyg X-2

Power Density Spectrum

1990 era

X-ray Light Curves

1980 era

1970 era

1960 era

Paul et al. Ap.J. 528 (2000), 410

slide11

Galactic OVII & VIII Map with SSC

MAXI SSC expected counts: 80- 310 counts in 1.5°x1.5° for 2 yr operation. Obs.eff.=0.7

Galactic Soft X-ray Spectra correspond’g to each Sky Region.

Markevitch et al. 2003 ApJ.

ROSAT all-sky map of CXB

Snowden et al. 1997 ApJ.

agn topics
AGN Topics
  • Multiwavelength Simultenous Obs. of ~ 100? AGN’s (Long-term variability of Blazars, Sy etc)
    • Radio
    • Opt (MAGNAM etc)
    • Gamma (GLAST etc)
    • TeV Gamma (CANGAROO etc)
  • Connection between BLSy and NLSy and between AGN and BHC
  • Binary AGNs?
  • CXB: Fluctuation in All Sky Background < a few % in 1.5x1.5 deg2 < 0.5 mcrab
multi wavelength observations of blazar
Multi-wavelength Observations of “Blazar”

- Rapid time-variability as short as 1 day

:~ 1016 cm(0.01 pc)

- Wide-band spectra from radio to TeV g-ray:

acceleration up to 1012eV

Takahashi et al. 2000, ApJL 542, L105

Successful SSC Model

Mrk 421

TeV g

Mrk 421

Inverse

Compton

synchrotron

RXTE (8-15keV)

ASCA(0.5-7keV)

SAX

EUVE

optical

X-ray

GeV-g

radio

TeV-g

1 day

r band and x ray correlation of n3516
R-band and X-ray correlation of N3516

Smoothed R-band

(advanced)

sampling inteval ~ 4.3 - 17 d

Maoz et al. 2002, AJ 124, 1988

slide15

AGN mass estimation from X-ray variability

Hayashida et al 1998 ApJ 500

AGN

Cyg X-1

slide16

AGN mass estimation in comprison with Cyg X-1

(Cyg X-1)

Hayashida et al 1998 ApJ 500

maxi iss schedule and iss science
MAXI/ISS Schedule and ISS Science
  • 1992: ISS completion goal in 1982 ?
  • 2000: ISS completion goal in 1992 ?
  • 2003: ISS-JEM-MAXI completion goal in 1996
  • 2008: present ISS-JEM-MAXI completion goal ?
  • Payloads for ISS (JEM), an omnibus system

=Schedule is changeable.

=Science should not become out-of-date.

= Resources & attitude system are restricted.

  • ASM or Monitor astronomy could be one of reasonable sciences? MAXI is delayed and then Lobster-ISS follows complementarily.
summary
Summary

・ Dynamics of Galactic and Extra-galactic Objects: Multi-color Observations.

・ Creation of Data Base for Variable X-ray Sources: Necessity of Continuation of ASM missions.

・ Large Scale Mapping of Diffuse X-ray Sky: Toward better Energy Resolution, Doppler-shift and Absorption etc.

・ MAXI launching time: ready in 2007 with the best ASM sensitivity. But Lobster-ISS will follow complementarily with better sensitivity.

asca long look of blazars

Appendix B

ASCA long-look of Blazars

ASCA Light Curve

Power Spectra

1 day

Mrk421

Mrk501

1 day

PKS2155-304

- Every day flares

: tvar ~ 105[s]

  • Steep PSD spectra ( t < tvar)

R ~ ctvard~ 1016 [cm]

Kataoka et al. ApJ 2001

Tanihata et al. ApJ 2001