Layers of the Crust Hillary Byers Gena Camerlengo Nora Jennings Faith Mulach
Activity • Grade level: 2-3 • After learning about the layers of the Earth, students will build a model of the Earth’s crust with food. There are many layers of the earth’s crust, which are in turn made up of different types of rock. Students will learn what each layer of the sandwich represents and then learn how the earth’s crust is developed and what materials have combined to form it.
Materials • Stack of paper plates • Plastic knives • Dark rye bread • Light brown bread • White bread • Crunchy peanut butter • White icing with M & M's • Materials to sketch and label the sandwich (left side: names of food, right side: names of rocks and characteristics) • Pictures of different layers of rocks, such as in the Grand Canyon
The Earth’s Core • The core is at the center of the Earth • The center is solid • The outer layer is so hot it is molten
The Mantle • Thick shell of rock surrounding the outer core • It is flexible, allowing it to bend • Makes up most of the Earth’s mass
The Crust • Earth’s hard outer shell • Light and brittle • It is cooler and more rigid than the core and mantle
Layers of the Earth’s Crust1st layer Paper Plate=Granite • Igneous rock • Laid down billions of years ago • Much thicker than any other layer • Cannot be drilled through
2nd Layer White Bread=Sandstone • The sandstone layer was formed by a river • Over time the river erodes the bedrock and forms small pieces of sand • The sand sticks together and forms sandstone at the bottom of the river
3rd Layer Crunchy Peanut Butter=Conglomerate • There was a great flood and mud and rocks were deposited over the sandstone • Over time the mud and rocks formed a sedimentary rock
4th Layer Light Brown Bread=Shale • The river carried small pieces of rock called silt • Over time the river slowed down and then silt gathered together and became shale
5th Layer Icing + M&Ms=Fossilized Limestone • At this point in time an ice age ended • The glaciers melted and oceans rose causing water to cover what was previously land
6th Layer Dark Brown Bread=Topsoil • Covers the rock layers many long years after the ocean and river have disappeared and the rock layers rose up • Earthquakes and moving plates can cause the layers to rise
Academic Content Standards • By the end of grades 3-5 be able to summarize the processes that shape Earth’s surface and describe evidence of those processes: • Compare distinct properties of rocks. • Observe and investigate that rocks are often found in layers. • Describe that smaller rocks come from the breakdown of larger rocks through the actions of plants and weather. • Observe and describe the composition of soil. • Investigate the properties of soil. • Investigate that soils are often found in layers and can be different from place to place.
Resources • S. Olesik, WOW Project, Ohio State University, 2000. http://www.wow.osu.edu/experiments/geology/ebmf.html • http://www.wow.osu.edu/experiments/geology/ebmf.html • http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/100/interior.html