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Nutritional Needs of special . Infants and children

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nutritional needs of special

Nutritional Needs of special

Infants and children

The caloric and nutrient intakes of children are critical for supporting growth and development. Infants whose diet is primarily mother's milk or infant formula consume 40%or more of their calories form fat, which is appropriate during infancy. When children reach 2 years of age, however, they should be encouraged to consume a diet lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.

iron deficiency
Iron deficiency

IS a problem for 21% of low –income children 1 to 2 years of age and for 10% of low-income children 3 to 4 years of age .

Anemia ,an index of iron deficiency Can result in :-

  • decreased physical ability
  • Impaired body temperature regulation
  • Lowered resistance to infection
  • Alterations in intellectual performance
iron deficiency prevention
Iron deficiency prevention

A healthy start for infants means:-

  • Encouraging mothers to breast –feed
  • Use iron rich for mules for formula-fed infants
  • It is important that during pregnancy and lactation mothers maintain sufficient iron intake through iron -rich foods or supplements

Research suggests that parents influence the dietary choices made by preschoolers parents have less influence on food choices made by school –age children .


Adolescence is a period of biologic and social change.

Body size ,composition ,functions, and physical abilities are changing rapidly.


Many elderly people have chewing and swallowing disorders that make eating fruits and vegetables difficult .

Average daily fiber intake among the elderly is less than half the recommended 20 to 35 grams.


Health benefits attributed to fiber include :-

  • proper bowel function.
  • Reduced risk of colon cancer.
  • Reduction of serum cholesterol.
  • Improved glucose response.

Daily activity along with an adequate diet can prevent premature mortality from heart disease

interventions to change eating behaviors
Interventions to change Eating Behaviors

Nursing diagnoses relevant to health promotion include:-

Altered nutrition: high risk for more than body requirements.

Altered nutrition: more than body requirements

Altered nutrition: less than body requirements

interventions to change eating behaviors1
Interventions to change Eating Behaviors

Improving eating patterns involves changing knowledge attitudes ,and skills as well as the food consumption environment.

The following strategies are recommended:-

  • Improving accessibility of nutrition information ,nutrition education ,nutrition counseling and related services, and healthful foods in a variety of settings and for all subpopulations.
interventions to change eating behaviors2
Interventions to change Eating Behaviors
  • Focusing on preventing chronic disease associated with dieted weight ,beginning in youth
  • Strengthening the link between nutrition and physical activity in health promotion
  • Maintaining a strong national program for basic and applied nutrition research to provide a sound science base for dietary recommendations and effective interventions .
interventions to change eating behaviors3
Interventions to change Eating Behaviors
  • Maintaining a strong national nutrition –monitoring program to accurate, reliable, timely and comaprable data to assess status and to be responsive to unmet data needs and emerging issues .
  • Strengthening state and community data systems to be responsive to the data users at these levels.
interventions to change eating behaviors4
Interventions to change Eating Behaviors
  • Building and sustaining broad –based initiatives and commitment to These objectives by public and private sector partners at the national ,state, and local levels(U.S. Department of Health and human services,2000).