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Propaganda / Persuasion Through the Ages. Ancient World Egypt, China, Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, India, Greece, Rome Greek Rhetoric Plato & Socrates versus Sophists Aristotle: means of persuasion. Propaganda / Persuasion Through the Ages.

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Propaganda persuasion through the ages
Propaganda / PersuasionThrough the Ages

Ancient World

Egypt, China, Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, India, Greece, Rome

Greek Rhetoric

Plato & Socrates versus Sophists

Aristotle: means of persuasion

Propaganda persuasion through the ages1
Propaganda / PersuasionThrough the Ages

  • Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey (around 7th Century B.C.E)

  • Arete: excellence / reaching the highest human potential

  • .

Propaganda persuasion through the ages2
Propaganda / PersuasionThrough the Ages

Athens and Sparta: The Struggle with Persia

First Persian Invasion under Darius:

Battle of Marathon490 BCE

The second persian campaign 480 bce
The Second Persian Campaign: Marathon 480 BCE

  • 480 BCE: Xerxes, king of Persia, invades the Greek mainland

    • Greek resistance to Persia exemplified in the Battle of Thermopylae.

    • Persian force is defeated at the Battle Salamis

  • 479 BCE: Xerxes withdraws his forces.

The symbol of thermopylae the foundation myth of western civilization
The symbol of Thermopylae Marathon The foundation myth of western civilization


Fighting for freedom


  • The Spartans sacrificed themselves for the freedom of Greece.

  • The Greeks were a special nation that possessed qualities (like rationality and a passion for liberty) that the nations of the ancient East were lacking.

  • The Greco-Persian war marked the birth of western civilization, defined by rationalism, freedom, and democracy.

Stereotyping the enemy
Stereotyping the enemy Marathon

  • the Persians are shown as effeminate and religious devotees.

  • The Spartans are physically perfect.

  • It is man versus woman, mysticism versus rationalism, healthy versus sick.

Consider reading
Consider reading: Marathon

  • The Histories by Herodotus

  • Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World by Paul Cartledge

Alexander the great 356 323 bce
Alexander the Great Marathon (356–323 BCE)

  • Conquest

  • Treatment of enemies

  • Incorporation of cultures/people

  • Cult of personality

Deeds of alexander by callisthenes a professional flatterer
Deeds of Alexander Marathon By Callisthenes (a professional flatterer)

  • many allusions to Homer's Iliad, a calculation of the date of the fall of Troy exactly thousand years before Alexander's visit to the sacred city

  • references to towns mentioned by Homer and visited by Alexander.

  • Alexander's manly behavior and the effeminate weakness of the Persians

  • the sea showing obedience to the new Achilles

  • Alexander is the son of Zeus. 

The Marathon Hellenistic civilizationFrom the death of Alexander 323 BCE to 31 BCE when Rome defeated Greece.

  • The spread of Greek power and cultural influence throughout the former Empire of Alexander

The hellenistic civilization
The Hellenistic civilization Marathon

  • Partially deliberate policy

  • Partially a natural diffusion of Greek culture, arts, architecture, mathematics, philosophy and science.

  • Transformation of Greek society from the localized and introverted city-states to an open, cosmopolitan, and exuberant culture that permeated the entire eastern Mediterranean, and Southwest Asia.

  • Greek thinking, mores, and way of life dominated the public affairs of the time. The Greek language became the official language of the Hellenistic world.

Imperial rome

  • .

. Marathon

Imperial rome1
Imperial Rome Marathon

  • The Law

  • The Military

  • The Technology / Engineering

Julius caesar cult of personality
Julius Caesar: Cult of Personality Marathon

  • Decisivenes: Crossing Rubicon and Alea iacta est (The die is cast).

  • Military prowess and skill: Veni, vidi, vici (I came, I saw, I conquered).

  • Supernatural—descended from the goddess Venus

Judaism and the rise of christianity
Judaism and the Rise of Christianity Marathon

  • Myth of Creation

  • The Mosaic Law (The Old Testament)

  • Paul of Tarsus and the New Testament

  • Early Christianity (preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325).

  • Establishment of the Church

  • The Reformation / Counter-Reformation

  • Martin Luther / Ignatius Loyola

Religion Marathon

  • Charismatic figures

  • Heavy symbolism

  • A simple moral philosophy

  • Fulfilling people’s needs

  • Enforcement through fear

Religion as reinforcement of the dominant ideology
Religion as ‘reinforcement’ of the dominant ideology Marathon

  • The Japanese military use of Shinto

  • Stalin’s use of Orthodox Church

  • The Catholicism of the Irish Republican Army

  • Martin Luther (16th cent): condemnation of peasant revolt

  • Islam and terrorism

  • Religions support for slavery (U.S.) and segregation (apartheid in South Africa).

Slavery Marathon

  • "[Slavery] was established by decree of Almighty is sanctioned in the Bible, in both Testaments, from Genesis to Revelation..." Jefferson Davis (president of the Confederation)

  • "The right of holding slaves is clearly established in the Holy Scriptures, both by precept and example." Rev. R. Furman, D.D., a Baptist pastor

  • For many years the Quakers were the only anti-slavery denomination

Christianity and the west
Christianity and the West Marathon

  • Traditionally Christianity was seen as a Western or European religion.

  • Now Christianity is becoming a post-Western religion dominated by the peoples, cultures, and countries of the global South.

  • Religion will shape the dynamics of existing, new, and emerging great powers.

  • It will influence U.S. attempts to promote freedom, civil society, democracy, and economic development

Christian resurgence
Christian resurgence Marathon

  • The most dramatic religious explosion in the world today is the spread of Pentecostalism and evangelical Protestantism

  • Pentecostalism is a movement within Christianity that places emphasis on a direct personal experience of God.

  • Pentecostalism includes a wide range of different theologies and cultures. There is no single central organization or church that directs the movement. Many Pentecostal groups are affiliated with the Pentecostal World Conference.

Evangelical protestantism
Evangelical Protestantism Marathon

  • Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement. Its key commitments are:

  • The need for personal conversion (or being "born again")

  • Actively expressing and sharing the gospel

  • A high regard for biblical authority, especially biblical inerrancy

  • An emphasis on teachings that proclaim the death and resurrection of Jesus

Political activities
Political activities Marathon

  • Traditionally Pentecostalism and evangelical Protestantism were thought to be private and highly personal religions with little interest in politics

  • Recently they became very active in politics, especially in Latin America

  • Generally they support freedom and democracy, but because of their biblical literalism they promote intolerance

Religious renewal in asia
Religious renewal in Asia Marathon

  • China is experiencing a tremendous expansion of Pentecostalism and evangelical Christianity.

  • It is projected that by 2050 there will be about 200 million Christians in China (15% of the population)

  • In South Korea Christianity reached over 25% of the population

  • Meanwhile, northwestern China is home to over 20 million Muslims and is now in the grip of an Islamic reawakening.

India s problem
India’s problem Marathon

  • Although 80% of Indians are Hindus, there are serious variations within the country.

  • For example,

  • Muslims comprise 67% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir.

  • Christians dominate small eastern states of Nagaland (90%), Mizoram (87%), and Meghalaya (70%).

  • Sikhs make up 60% of Punjab

Common sense 1776
Common Sense (1776) Marathon

  • Thomas Paine

The american revolution
The American Revolution Marathon

  • “Boston Massacre” (1770)

  • Political cartoons: “Join, or Die”

  • John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean Jacques Rousseau

  • Declaration of Independence

  • The Constitution

The constitution and the declaration
The Constitution and the Declaration Marathon

  • Promotion of the political ideas of Enlightenment: to create a system of checks and balances that held rulers to higher laws/standards.

  • Democratic government / separation of powers / secularism / rationality

The rationalism and secularism
The rationalism and secularism Marathon

  • Thomas Jefferson:Shake off all the fears of servile prejudices, under which weak minds are crouched. Fix reason firmly in her seat, and call her tribunal for every fact, every opinion. Question with boldness even the existence of a God; because, if there be one, he must more approve of the homage of reason than that of blindfolded fear