HK. Animal Testing in Medical Research. History Medical research Use of animals in research Today How it helps us Different animals used Why we use animals in research Can it be justified, why is it wrong Pros/cons Alternatives Regulations Future Outlook . Table of contents.
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Is defined as the use of non-human animals in experimentation, for the better of human kind, and health, but is controversial because of the negative effects on animals and their well being
kidney transplants-(dogs and pigs)
Replacement heart valves
Hip replacement surgery
Heart bypass operations
Drugs to treat mental illness
Drugs to treat stomach ulcers, asthma and leukemia-(mice)
Drugs to control transplant rejection-(Mice)
Life support systems for premature babies
Cloning of DollyMedical Research
In 1891, George Fell, an American surgeon, forced respiration to treat victims of accidental morphine poisoning or drowning. Nine years later, Matas used positive-pressure ventilation through a tube in the larynx for operations on the open thorax.
Animal research plays a very important role in the development of targeted therapies that can be used in personalized medicine, and an early example of this is the drug Herceptin, which is used to treat cancers that express the HER2 gene.
developed a model of human breast cancer in which many of these same features have been applied to genetically modified human breast tissue.
The (HIM) model
Parkinson's researchers looking for ways to ignite the repair mechanisms already in a patient's brain so that they can fix damage that mechanisms couldn’t do otherwise.
handle, relatively inexpensive to buy and keep, and produce
many offspring in a short period of time.
However, rodents may not always be the best animal model
to use in certain experiments. In these cases, dogs, cats, rabbits,
sheep, pigs, fish, frogs, birds, nonhuman primates, or other kinds
of animals may be used. All of these animals together make up
less than 10% of the animals used in research.Animals used
(2009)In the U.S 1.13 million animals were used in experiments (excluding rats, mice, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and agricultural animals used in agricultural experiments), plus an estimated 100 million mice and rats
Scientists typically use animals for testing purposes because they are considered similar to humans, but Diseases that are artificially induced in animals in a laboratory are never identical to those that occur naturally in human beings only similar. And because animal species differ from one another biologically in many significant ways, it becomes even more unlikely that animal experiments will yield results that will be correctly interpreted and applied to the human condition in a meaningful way.
As time passed by, it became only natural of scientists to test on animals. Not until the past recent years there has been a controversy over animal testing. People have different opinions and different approaches to this matter. Some people think hat it is wrong to force animals to be tested on. Others think that testing on animals can solve problems for humans.Pros & Cons
Animal experimenters are very aware of this ethical problem and acknowledge that experiments should be made as humane as possible.
A while ago, the toxicity of a new substance was measured by an ``LD50`` lethal dose(50%) a test that required 200 rats, dogs or other animals to be force-fed various amounts of the substance to determine the dose would kill half the group of animals
last 30 years there has been a decline in usage if animals in research Great Britain and Norway have cut down the number of animals used in research by 50 percent.
1. Alternatives to animal testing.(2012),May 16. 2012. from, http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/alternatives-to-animal-testing.aspx