MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM. Introduction. Over the past two decades, a transformation to an information society has been taking place, and computers and telecommunications technologies have revolutionised the way that organisations operate.
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Introduction • Over the past two decades, a transformation to an information society has been taking place, and computers and telecommunications technologies have revolutionised the way that organisations operate. • We live in an information age, and no business of any size can survive and compete without embracing information technology. Information has come to be recognised as a resource of fundamental importance to an organisation, in the same way as the more traditional resources of people, materials and finance.
Introduction • It is not enough to be merely ‘computer-literate’ in order to become an expert in information systems. • It is also necessary to understand how to apply modern technology in a business, commercial or other environment to achieve the goals of the organisation.
Internal and external information • Much of the information used by management concerns the internal operations of the Organisation • However, external information about the environment in which the organisation exists is crucial to all organisations.
This type of information is of great importance to managers who are trying to:-
An international car manufacturing company maintains a database holding:-
EXERCISE 8.1 Discussion- What database would you like to maintain as an ASP/IP for your need?
Information flow • Information flows through an organisation through both formal and informal information systems. • Information is also circulated through Department’s newsletters, memos and notice boards. • The problem with newsletters and memos is that readers often have so much information to absorb that they quickly forget it.
The role of a management information system The role of a management information system is to convert data from internal and external sources into information that can be used to aid in making effective decisions for:-
What managers do? • To understand how information systems can benefit managers, we first need to examine what the functions of management are and the kind of information they need for decision-making. • Management information systems must be designed to support managers in as many of these functions as possible, at following levels of an organisation.
EXERCISE 8.2 Discussion: • What are the management functions at the level of ASPs/IPs? 2. How could an MIS help Postal managers at various levels to carry out activities of planning, organising , coordinating, decision-making and controlling?
Types of decision • Management decisions can be classified into two types –
Unstructured decisions on the other hand are decisions which require :- • They are often important decisions and there is no set procedure for making them.
Stages of decision-making • Making unstructured, non-routine decisions is a process that:-
EXERCISE 8.3 • Discussion List 10 decisions of each type (structured & unstructured) taken by the ASP/IPs in their level of decision making.
STAGES OF DECISION MAKING • The manager who has non-routine decisions to make typically goes through the following stages: 1. Recognition that there is a problem. • An information system is useful at this stage to keep managers informed of how well the department or organisation is performing and to let them know where problems exist.
2. Consideration of possible solutions. • More detailed information may be needed at this stage, or possibly tools such as a spreadsheet which can model the effect of different solutions such as sales increases or decreases etc. 3. Choosing a solution. 4. Implementing the solution. • This may involve setting up a new management information system to report on the progress of the solution.
Most decisions do not proceed smoothly from one stage to the next, and backtracking to a previous stage is often required if a chosen solution turns out to be impossible or new information comes to light which offers alternative choices. • Making structured decisions – often of an operational nature – is made easier by having an information system which provides the information necessary to make the correct decisions.
EXERCISE 8.4 Discussion • List the departmental MIS being used by the Indiapost • Accounts MIS etc….. • Other you think need to be built.
Desirable characteristics of an MIS • Formal information systems are useful at every level of an organisation. • Operational systems provide answers to specific, routine questions on screen or through regular daily, weekly or monthly reports. • A manager is likely to need information which comes to light from a new way of analysing the available data, or information from external sources.
What prompts a new system? 1. The development of a new information system is a major undertaking and not one to be undertaken lightly. • Wal-Mart, an American discount store, spent $700m on its new computerised distribution system in the 1980s. • The current system may no longer be suitable for its purpose. • Changes in work processes, expansion of the business, changes in business requirements or the environment in which the organisation operates may all lead to a reassessment of information system requirements.
What prompts a new system? 2. Technological developments may have made the current system redundant or outdated. Advances in hardware, software and telecommunications bring new opportunities which an organisation cannot ignore if it is to keep ahead of its rivals. 3. The current system may be too inflexible or expensive to maintain, or may reduce the organisation’s ability to respond quickly enough to customer’s demands.
Exercise- 8.5 Discussion • Is anyone of you already using any Management Information system other than departmental ones? The trainees using MIS may tell about their MIS & experiences to others who are not using any MIS.