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Group presentation. The Brand Personality of Large Sports Events. adam , andy , ashley , cody , matt, mike. Article overview. Purpose Evaluating Brand Personality in “ big time ” sporting events Methods Questionnaire Standardized by J. Aaker Results Overall Positive. purpose.

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Group presentation
Group presentation

The Brand Personality of Large Sports Events

adam, andy, ashley, cody, matt, mike

Article overview
Article overview

  • Purpose

    • Evaluating Brand Personality in “big time” sporting events

  • Methods

    • Questionnaire Standardized by J. Aaker

  • Results

    • Overall Positive


  • Brief Details

    • Identifying Brand Personality Traits of the Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, and Tour de France.

    • Analysis will modify future marketing strategies in connection with these events.

  • Expectations

    • The researchers believe they will receive positive attitude towards brand personality


  • Participants

    • A group of Czech students 21-25 years old

    • Less then 40% were male

  • Task

    • Measure brand personality for three sports events of world significance based on human characteristics

  • Procedure

    • Written Questionnaires

    • Subjects evaluated personality traits using a five-point Likert scale

    • 1 being fully descriptive, 5 being not at all descriptive


  • Overall the three brands received positive feedback in every important trait.

  • Summer Olympics

    • Proper, Sincere, Exciting, Unique, Hard Working, Successful, Self-Confident, Upper Class, Splendid, Striking with Team Spirit

  • World Cup

    • Modern, Exciting, Spirited, Successfulm Self- Confident, and Male with a Strong Team Spirit

  • Tour de France

    • Hard Working, Successful, and Male


  • What were the main independent and dependent variables in the study?

    • Dependent: Brand personality traits

    • Independent: Sports events that are perceived either positively or negatively by consumers

Relationship of interest
Relationship of interest

  • What was the relationship of interest in the study?

    • The relationship between a consumer and a sport event, specifically brand personality

External validity
External validity

  • Sampling strategy

    • Non-Probabilistic

    • Purposive

    • No random Selection

    • They specifically chose college students through the ages of 21-25 for subjects. Easiest to generalize to.

External validity1
External validity

  • Generalizations

    • Population: 296 university students, mostly 21-25 years of age, was used as subjects for this study. Less then 40% were male

    • Setting: Prague, Czech Republic. More specifically anywhere you attend a sporting event.

    • Time: Recently done. Also pertaining to the years the games will take place (2020)

External validity2
External validity

  • “Does it generalize to the population of interest?”

    • The study is generalizing to the Czech population that attends sporting events, mainly 21-25, however it is reasonable to say that it is generalizing to the whole population in the Czech Republic

External validity3
External validity

  • Issues

    • Population vs. sample

    • Male to female ratio

    • International sporting events

    • Interaction of selection and treatment

    • Interaction of testing and treatment

Construct validity
Construct validity

  • Brand personality

    • Comprehensive measure of brand personality

    • There were some traits presented that seemed to peculiar to us and could have been omitted

    • The authors do throw some of these out in their discussion, but we did not see the need of them being presented as an option

    • There was face validity that these traits represented brand personality because the authors did get this description of brand personality from an expert in the field

    • The authors did mention all four components of brand identity , but only talked about brand personality in detail

Construct validity1
Construct validity

  • Brand Personality Questionnaire

    • Used a questionnaire developed by J. Aaker, and expert in the field, to test brand personality

    • The authors omitted some negative traits because the authors stated that brands are typically linked to positive associations

    • No mention of when the testing took place

    • Testing was only administered one time

Construct validity2
Construct validity

  • Threats

    • Mono-Operational Bias

      • There is only one time that this construct is operationalized

      • We think it can be easily argued that the responses of the subjects could easily have been influenced or manipulated by outside events taking place at the same time

    • Hypothesis Guessing

      • There is a lot of discussion about the possibility of the Olympics coming to Prague throughout this study

      • The participants could easily think that they have the power to influence this event taking place and score the brand personality of the Olympics in a positive light

Internal validity
Internal validity

  • Design

    X O or

    X O1,2,3,4,5

Internal validity1
Internal Validity

  • Temporal precedence:

    • This study doesn’t have Temporal precedence because there is no way reason to prove that something changed before and after the testing. This experiment is having them fill out a questionnaire so there is no need to have a pre-test

  • Covariation:

    • This study doesn’t have Covariation of cause and effect because there is no pre-test and the researches are simply using a questionnaire to find the brand awareness

  • Alternative explanations:

    • Also no alternative explanations because of the reasons stated above

Internal validity2
Internal validity

  • Threats:

    • Single group threats

    • History threats