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Bell Ringer

Bell Ringer

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Bell Ringer

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  1. Bell Ringer This is called a Leadership Tree Each kid has reached a different level of leadership. You task is to choose which kid represents you best with regards to this class. Write an analytical paragraph explaining why you chose the kid you did. Bonus: Pick which kid you think I am as your teacher. Feel free to be honest—you won’t hurt my feelings 

  2. The South and the West Transformed Chapter 8

  3. The New South • Many people began to call for the South to become more industrialized • Pre-Civil War the South just shipped raw materials (cotton, ore, wood) • Urban cities developed in Nashville and Birmingham • More small farms popped up as the old plantations deteriorated

  4. The New South • Railroads were still found mostly in the North • Southern cities were isolated from the rest of the nation until the 1890s/1900s • Once they began connecting areas new cities became more successful such as Atlanta, Dallas, and Nashville • Southerners petitioned the federal government to pay for these new railroads

  5. The New South • The South lagged behind despite these changes • Mostly due to the Civil War’s destruction of their region • To develop they needed natural resources, labor, and capital • They had resources, but labor had been killed off during the war, and capital was spent on the war • You also needed well trained people to work and people who had money to spend

  6. The New South • The South spent less on education than anywhere else (still true in many cases) • Public education was limited • Skilled workers were discouraged by low wages so they stayed in the North • If they lived in the South they would move north • Most of the South’s wealth was put in the hands of few people • The banks in the South didn’t survive so there were few ways to get loans

  7. Southern Farmers Face Hard Times • Most Southerners had relied on cash crops • These are crops that are sold for cash instead of being grown for personal use • Cotton and tobacco had been the most popular • Because the South had an excess supply of cotton it dropped the price (value) of it • This meant farmers were getting less money for the same amount of cotton • The boll weevil (bug) began destroying cotton crops • These issues led to cotton production dropping by 50% in some areas

  8. Southern Farmers Face Hard Times • A group of farmers in Texas came together to deal with the crisis that they were facing • They created the Farmers’ Alliance • There goals were: • Force railroads to lower freight prices so they could sell stuff to the North • Regulate interest rates that banks could charge for loans • They would achieve both (eventually)

  9. Black Southerners Gain and Lose • Review: What were the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments? • Because African Americans could vote and serve in the military (still faced HEAVY discrimination) • The Farmers’ Alliance (in some areas) allowed for black people to join their organization • This opened the door to seeing that interracial groups could easily work together

  10. Black Southerners Gain and Lose • African Americans also gained access to education • The government and northern philanthropists paid for schools for black people • These schools were able to teach black people at least how to read and write • Other schools went further to actually teach them the same subjects that white kids learned

  11. Black Southerners Gain and Lose • Before we get to warm-fuzzy we must remember that racism was still really strong • The Ku Klux Klan intimidated black people • There goals were to keep society segregated • Even churches that were once integrated were no segregated • They also pushed to remove all black government officials

  12. Black Southerners Gain and Lose • Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875 • Guaranteed black patrons the right to ride trains and use public facilities (hotels, etc.) • The Supreme Court would later limit this law by saying that these issues were left for local governments to decide • This opened the door for Southern businesses to enforce discriminatory laws

  13. Assignment • Turn in your Mass Culture worksheet • If you were in charge of the South’s “comeback” what do you think would have been necessary to rebuild it in a way that discrimination would have been limited and their economy would have been prosperous? • Write a two paragraph response including as many details as possible

  14. Westward Expansion and the American Indians • More than 250,000 Natives lived west of the Mississippi • While most Americans didn’t know what the difference was between them, there were very distinct cultures of Natives • Geography was a significant influence • In the northwest, tribes were larger as food supply was plentiful • In the southwest tribes were smaller due to lack of food • In NM/AZ the Natives were able to grow corn, beans, and squash • There you will find cliff dwellings • Many tribes were nomadic, following herds

  15. Westward Expansion and the American Indians • The tribes had a common thread—they viewed nature as sacred not a resource • This led to many conflicts with the white people • Under Andrew Jackson the Natives had been sent to the “Great American Desert” (Oklahoma) • They were moved again when the Americans decided they wanted to build a transcontinental railroad • The Natives were put onto much smaller pieces of land called reservations • Could not find food not had freedom which resulted in poverty and suppression

  16. Westward Expansion and the American Indians • The Natives were “attacked” by the white people in two other ways • Diseases killed off a large portion of the population • The buffalo they depended on were killed off, typically for sport, with the meat and hides left to waste

  17. New Settlers and Native Americans Clash • With increased communication and transportation technology the collision between Americans and Natives became inevitable • “If you strike into the broad, free West, and make yourself a farm from Uncle Sam’s generous domain, you will crowd nobody, starve nobody, and neither you nor your children need evermore bet…” • What is this snippet from the New York Tribune forgetting about?

  18. New Settlers and Native Americans Clash • During the Civil War, the Natives attempted to resist white encroachment by attacking settlements in MN • American response was to fight back and push the Sioux all the way to the Dakotas • In 1864, after a series of Sioux attacks that led to hefty distrust between the two groups, a group of CO militia opened fire on an unarmed camp of Cheyenne and Arapaho • The camp had been ordered under protection by the U.S. Army • The Natives tried to signal friendship by holding up the American flag • In the end many were left dead • After the Civil War, white and black soldiers were sent to subdue the Natives • Anything you could plunder you were allowed to simply take • Government said it was necessary to maintain order

  19. New Settlers and Native Americans Clash • In 1866 Red Cloud (Plains) lured Cpt. William Fetterman’s troops into an ambush • All troops were killed • This led many to question the U.S.’s Native policies • Reformers called for education of Natives • The Indian Peace Commission was created to determine how to peacefully resolve the issue with Natives • They concluded that lasting peace would only come if the Natives assimilated

  20. New Settlers and Native Americans Clash • The Fort Laramie Treaty was signed in 1866 • U.S. agreed not to build RR through Sioux territory and they abandoned three forts • The Sioux agreed to live on reservations • The U.S. government would provide the land and adequate supplied through the use of an agent • The Bureau of Indian Affairs was in charge of overseeing the reservations • The agents who were supposed to disburse payments/supplies often stole it • That led to battles with horrible outcomes • Honest agents often didn’t have the necessary supplied to help the Natives

  21. The End of the Indian Wars • Natives were kept in impoverished areas • Failed promises led to frustration • Frustration led to young warriors turning violent • Americans crushed these uprisings • The U.S. government failed to uphold the Treaty of Medicine Lodge • The Red River War was fought in response to white buffalo hunters on Native lands, white lawlessness, and supplies not being delivered • The Comanche lost this war

  22. The End of the Indian Wars • White people rushed to the Black Hills (SD) to find gold • This and the eastern part of MT were Sioux hunting lands • Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull led a group to drive out the white people • U.S. responded by sending in troops led by George Custer • Custer’s 250 came across 2000 Natives • Crazy Horse led a charge at the Battle of Little Big Horn • All of Custer’s men were killed • Sitting Bull escaped to Canada by the time reinforcements showed up, but Crazy Horse and his men surrendered

  23. The End of the Indian Wars • In Idaho the government wanted to move the Nez Percés • Most had become Christians as well as successful horse/cattle breeders • They ran for 1,300 miles before Chief Joseph surrendered • “I will fight no more forever” • They were banished to Washington, D.C.

  24. The End of the Indian Wars • Natives in Wounded Knee, SD held a religious revival based on the Ghost Dance • A spiritual dance that declared that peace would come after the white man—referring to the afterlife but Americans took it to be more of a threat • Governmental officials, fearing this attitude order the arrest of Sitting Bull • Hostilities broke out killing about 100 people

  25. The Government Promotes Assimilation • “There is not among these three hundred bands of Indians one which has not suffered cruelly at the hands either of the Government or of white settlers. The poorer, the more insignificant, the more helpless the band, the more certain the cruelty and outrage to which they have been subjected…It makes little difference where one opens the record of the history of the Indians; every page and every year has its dark stain…” Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor • Is this someone who supports assimilation?

  26. The Government Promotes Assimilation • Congress passed the Dawes General Allotment Act (a.k.a. Dawes Severalty Act) • Replaced reservations by giving each Native family 160 acre farm • What about their tribal life and communal property? • They hoped that the younger Natives would embrace farming culture and integrate with the rest of American society • Didn’t work…

  27. Miners Hope to Strike it Rich