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University Biomechanics. Chandra Mura Jill Helgesen Amee Alan Ziad Dahdul. Graduate Schools. University of Arizona University of Michigan University of Las Vegas New York University University of Southern California The Johns Hopkins University. University of Arizona.

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university biomechanics

University Biomechanics

Chandra Mura

Jill Helgesen

Amee Alan

Ziad Dahdul

graduate schools
Graduate Schools
  • University of Arizona
  • University of Michigan
  • University of Las Vegas
  • New York University
  • University of Southern California
  • The Johns Hopkins University
university of arizona

University of Arizona

entrance requirements
Entrance Requirements:
  • Bachelor's degree in engineering, mathematics, or physical or life sciences, with a minimum GPA of 3.0
  • General GRE scores, minimum of 500 verbal, 650 quantitative and 650 analytical
  • Coursework in calculus, ordinary differential equations, linear algebra & matrix methods; at least one course each in computing and life science
  • Additional paperwork as described in application
admission fee s http www bursar arizona edu fees rate schedules asp term 044
Admission Fee’s:
university of michigan

University of Michigan

entrance requirements8
Entrance Requirements:
  • The Admissions Committee takes into consideration your GPA and GRE scores
  • Students with > 3.5 GPA and > 2100 GRE are almost always accepted.
  • Letters of recommendation
  • Your statement of purpose
  • Any work/research experience.
admission fee s http www finaid umich edu financial aid basics cost asp
Admission Fee’s
entrance requirements12
Entrance Requirements:
  • 2.75 GPA overall or 3.0 during last 2 years
  • 1000 minimum combined GRE (any 2 combined)
average time for program completion13
Master’s Program:

2 years master's full time

3 years master's part time

Average Time for Program Completion:
admission fee s http www per ualberta ca biomechanics bwwframe htm
Admission Fee’s

*must have lived in Nevada for at least 12 consecutive months

entrance requirements16
Entrance Requirements:
  • 3.0 GPA
  • 1200 total GRE (V, A, Q)
average time for program completion17
Average Time for Program Completion:
  • 1.5 year for M.S. student full time
  • 3 years for M.S. student full time
  • 5 – 6 years for Ph.D. student
admission fee s http www nyu edu gsas admissions tuitionandfees2004 05 html
Admission Fee’s
  • TUITION PER POINT: $971 Tuition for 24 points = $23,304
  • FEES FALL SEMESTER: First point = $292 Per point after first point = $52
  • FEES SPRING SEMESTER: First point = $305 Per point after first point = $52
  • In brief, for a full-time student registered for 24 points, the cost of tuition and fees will be $25,045
Entrance Requirements:

BA or BS

1000 GRE

Average Time for Program Completion:

PhD, 3-5 years

admission fee s http afaweb esd usc edu dcpage2 cfm pagebaseid 50072
Admission Fee’s:
  • Estimated Graduate Costs for 2 Semesters taking 8-14 units (tuition costs are per $1,010 per unit - this budget is based on 10 units of enrollment for 2 semesters.)
    • Tuition and mandatory fees-$24,724
  • Estimated Graduate Costs for 2 Semesters taking 15+ units. (This budget is based on a flat rate of tuition for 2 semesters).
    • Tuition and mandatory fees-$30,472
the johns hopkins university

The Johns Hopkins University

entrance requirements23
Entrance Requirements
  • GPA of 3.5 or higher
  • Official Graduate Record Examination scores (GRE) / MCAT scores will be acceptable. Research experience, course grades, and recommendations carry more weight
  • Three letters of recommendation - These letters should come from faculty members who are acquainted with you and your academic work.
  • Personal Statement - a typewritten statement (one page maximum) indicating the basis of your interest in graduate study and your career objectives. Included should be a discussion of any research experience you have had.
admission fee s
Admission Fee’s
  • Graduate Division of Education
    • $360 per credit for graduate-level courses except those offered in Washington, DC
    • The estimated cost for one year of graduate study is: $30,140.00
financial support
Financial Support:
  • All universities offer financial aid through teaching and research assistantships.
    • The primary duty of teaching assistants is assistance in all aspects of instruction (tutoring, grading, advising, sectional teaching, sectional laboratory teaching, field work teaching, limited lecturing)
    • The primary duty of research assistants is assistance in all aspects of university research.
  • Other financial aid options include fellowships, grants, and scholarships.
sport biomechancis sport analysis by perform enhance

Sport BiomechancisSport Analysis by Perform Enhance

Consultant Sport Biomechanists and Applied Anatomists

perform enhance
Perform Enhance
  • Perform Enhance is a company committed to the highest standards in sport skill and movement analysis
  • Established in 1971 by Geoff Hosford and Don Miekle who are leaders in the fields of sport biomechanics and applied anatomy
  • Perform Enhance offers the most comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical analyses of any selected skill
perform enhance28
Perform Enhance
  • A written documentation service is offered to students, teachers, coaches and athletes. Each analysis will include:
  • 1. Phasic breakdown of the skill
  • 2. Critical elements in technique
  • 3. Identification of major faults
  • 4. Biomechanical principles and their application
  • 5.Anatomical analysis of specific muscles and major muscle groups
  • 6. Appropriate biomechanical and anatomical diagrams together with sequence photographs
  • 7. Programs for strength, conditioning and flexibility specific to your skill
perform enhance29
Perform Enhance
  • Perform Enhance caters to various areas in which they are needed to perform a specific task. The following are areas in which Perform Enhance has been particularly useful:
  • Corporate Sport Administrators
  • Legal Fraternity
  • Private Investigators
  • Teachers of Physical Education
  • Sport Coaches
  • Students of Human Movement Science
  • Elite Athletes
  • Aspiring Sports Persons
nike laboratory
Nike Laboratory
  • Nike Sports Research Lab sits in the Advanced Research and Development group. More importantly -- it's not in some offsite or outsourced location. It commands nearly 13,000 square feet and is decked out with state-of-the-art research equipment
  • These researchers, most all with master's degrees, many with their doctorates, in fields such as biomechanics and physiology
nike laboratory31
Nike Laboratory

In simplest terms, their scientific work falls into three primary areas:

  • Biomechanics (study of human movement and related forces)
  • Physiology (study of the integration of the body's energy systems and responses to environmental stresses)
  • Sensory/perception (subjective evaluation of product attributes, usability, and durability)

For each of those, researchers must take into account the nuances of at least four differentiating factors:

  • Geography. Runners in the United States often run on hard surfaces while runners in Europe prefer trails. That leads to different cushioning demands and different potential injuries.
  • Gender. On average, for any shoe size, women tend to weigh 10% to 50% less than men. That translates into different structural needs.
  • Age. Children learning to walk - and the lab has studied even them - have different stability needs than those of a master athlete.
  • Skill level. Someone learning to hit their first clean shot off the tee has different needs than Tiger Woods.
nike laboratory32
Nike Laboratory
  • To do all this, the scientists have an incredible array of measurement and analysis tools. Their data collection includes virtually every variety of muscle sensor, pressure platform, breath analyzer, foot scanner, and thermal imaging devices. Two of the most striking are the high-speed video cameras that capture soccer kick data at 1,000 frames per second and the scanner that produces in just seconds a perfect 3D digital image of your foot, even if you're a size 22, as was one recent visitor.
  • An array of testing surfaces, such as a huge section of regulation basketball hardwood, artificial soccer turf, and a 70-meter sprinter's track runway. The lab's doors are even specially designed to allow runners to circle through the lab and out into the carpeted hall so they need not slow their pace while being tested indoors. Then there's the endless field testing that takes place outdoors in various terrain.
Here's an abbreviated list of some scientific techniques the researchers use to quantify their finds:
  • Motion analysis (kinematics)
  • Ground reaction forces and loading rates (kinetics)
  • Foot-pressure measurement (in-shoe and external)
  • Ankle range of motion (ROM)
  • Foot morphology
  • Electromyography
  • High-speed video
  • Metabolic cart
  • Heart-rate monitors
  • Skin and core-temperature sensors
  • Blood work
  • Several other methods/devices the NSRL has created but which remain, obviously, confidential
nike laboratory34
Nike Laboratory
  • One of the lab's most crucial relationships is with Nike's Material and Mechanical ("M&M") Testing lab. Located just across the hall from the NSRL, the M&M lab has millions of dollars of custom-made testing equipment in roughly 7,000 square feet. Scientists there gauge everything from the breath ability and traction of a shoe to the durability and waterproof characteristics of specific apparel fabrics. One of their machines can, in just over 24 hours, put 1,000 miles of wear on a shoe. Unlike a human test subject, the machine doesn't get exhausted, bored, injured, or complain. If the lab needs a piece of testing equipment that doesn't exist, they build it.
  • The scientists and designers wanted to create a design and materials that would bounce back to the original shape every time a runner's force smashed them down. They knew they were on to something when they created four foam-filled columns to support a resilient plate immediately below the heel. The bendable plate and compressing columns absorb and then immediately release the energy of impact, helping propel a foot through the running stride. That makes for a more comfortable and protected run.
orthotists and prosthesists
Orthotists and Prosthesists

What they do:

  • Orthotists and Prosthesists design, produce, and fit devices such as artificial limbs, orthotic shoes and equipment, and replacement joints

Where they work:

  • Private hospitals
  • Private practices
  • Rehabilitation facilities
  • Research labs
requirements for becoming an orthotist or prosthesist
Requirements for becoming an Orthotist or Prosthesist
  • General requirements:
    • Bachelor’s degree in biomechanics, orthotics, or prosthetics (can also be other related major)
    • Graduate degree in orthotic and prosthesist program
    • Time served in a residency program to gain clinical experience

Orthotists and prosthesists must also become certified by the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics

average salaries of orthotists and prosthesists
Average Salaries of Orthotists and Prosthesists


  • Non-certified practitioner: $30,752
  • After 60 months: $46,289
  • ABC-certified practitioner: $48,760
  • After 60 months: $91,455


Can make from anywhere between $40,000 and $150,000, with the average salary ranging from $49,000 to $60,000

miscellaneous information
Miscellaneous Information
  • Generally, the field is becoming more and more difficult for entrepreneurs because of the consolidation of smaller companies by the larger companies. So in this field, it would be much more difficult to climb the corporate ladder and become your own boss, although it’s not impossible
  • Contact or check out the American Orthotic and Prosthetic Association for more details on how to get involved in the field
accident re simulation
Accident Re-simulation

Vector Scientific

Vector Scientific, Inc. provides high-quality consulting services and conducts high-level scientific research in order to advance the science of forensic engineering and biomechanics

vector scientific research
Vector Scientific - Research
  • Auto Impact
  • New Neck Injury Dynamics in Rear-end Impacts
  • PCL, ACL, MCL Rupture in Auto Accident
  • Unique Pedestrian Impact Dynamics and Trajectory
  • Commercial Truck Accident Reconstruction
  • Sports and Recreation
  • Injury Mitigation Produced by Protective Pole Padding on Ski Terrain
  • Determination of Snowboarder vs. Snowboarder Impact Configuration Using Injury Biomechanics
  • Slip, Trip, and Fall
  • Lateral Tibial Plateau Fracture From a Stair Descent Misstep
  • Occupational
  • Nail Gun Knee Injury and Product Testing
  • Forensic Investigation of a Lumbar Disc Injury in an Industrial Setting
vector scientific
Vector Scientific
  • The experts at Vector Scientific have analyzed injury biomechanics in thousands of automobile accidents, from low-speed collisions with minor soft tissue injuries to high-speed collisions with severe and fatal injuries.
  • Crash tests are sometimes conducted to reconstruct specific cases and assess the impact severity and injury potential of the accident.
exercise physiology and exercise biomechanics of space flight exercise countermeasures
Exercise Physiology and Exercise Biomechanics of Space Flight Exercise Countermeasures
  • Located in Houston, Texas
  • A research center that is affiliated with NASA
the goals and objectives
The Goals and Objectives:
  • To support pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight medical physical fitness testing operations
  • To assist in the development of astronaut physical conditioning programs
the goals and objectives49
The Goals and Objectives:
  • To evaluate and validate exercise countermeasure equipment, procedures, protocols, and conditioning programs related to the maintenance of crew health and performance during Space Shuttle and International Space Station Missions
  • To understand the effect of microgravity on human performance during and after exposure to weightlessness and space flight
exercise physiology and exercise biomechanics of space flight exercise countermeasures50
Exercise Physiology and Exercise Biomechanics of Space Flight Exercise Countermeasures

The Laboratory also evaluates in-flight exercise responses and activity patterns as a way of evaluating and validating exercise countermeasure concepts. Research areas include cardiorespiratory functional capacity, musculoskeletal strength development and maintenance, orthostatic intolerance, biomechanics of movement, bone metabolism, and modeling of space-flight exercise activity patterns.

anthropometry and biomechanics facility abf
Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF)
  • The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) is located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas .
  • ABF has been tasked to research and evaluate flight equipment, procedures, and systems from the perspective of biomechanics, human performance, and ergonomics.
what abf does
What ABF does
  • ABF personnel have tested and evaluated crew work procedures and equipment, spacesuit design, Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and Intravehicular Activity (IVA) human performance issues, EVA/IVA tool design, and EVA/IVA crew-induced loads. Data gathered by the ABF are used to improve crew living and working conditions in order to enhance productivity and operational efficiency.
  • The ABF Vicon 612 is a passive marker tracking system. With integration of external devices including force plates and EMG systems and with flexible modeling software they can provide tailored solutions to your particular study: full body, hand, or foot.
  • At the heart of the system is the Vicon Data Station, it provides power, and synchronizes signals from not only the Vicon cameras, but also provides direct integration for ancillary devices such as force plates and EMG systems.
  • provides 3D motion in real time, Bodybuilder - flexible kinetic and kinematic modeling software, Polygon - multimedia report authoring tool, Plug-In Gait - clinically accepted full body model, Plug-in Modeler - select your own Body Language model.
sports biomechanist
Sports Biomechanist
  • What sport biomechanists do and why
    • aim to prove that the laws of physics and mechanics apply to not only non-living objects but also to humans in movement
    • Analyze the motions and movements of athletes while involved in their respective sports

The main purpose of biomechanical analysis in sports is to gain a level of understanding as to how the mechanisms of sports motion effect an athlete’s performance

3 techniques in biomechanical analysis
3 Techniques in Biomechanical Analysis
  • Film Analysis
  • Three Dimensional Analysis
  • Neuromotor Analysis
film analysis
Film Analysis
  • First, the athlete is filmed while performing his or her sport
  • Film is then broken down, with each individual photograph being digitized for analysis
  • Segmented landmarks placed on the joints of concern are used to see the athlete’s motion, move by move, in its entirety in order to properly analyze the athlete
  • Angular momentum, joint movement and force, and center of mass are examples of what a film analysis may look for
film analysis61
Film Analysis
  • Example of baseball pitcher, in digitized format
three dimensional analysis
Three Dimensional Analysis
  • Athlete/participant is analyzed in multiple planes as opposed to one plane
  • Almost every sport or activity involves movements in multiple planes, which makes this form of analysis very valuable
  • This type of analysis is basically film analysis done with multiple cameras to catch a specific motion or movement from numerous angles
neuromotor analysis
Neuromotor Analysis
  • Involved the use electromyography (EMG)
  • Analyzes the motion or movement by measuring the signal of a contracting muscle and amplifying it
  • the purpose of this method is to establish a relationship between muscle activation and an accompanying motion or movement
education and salary of a biomechanist
Education and Salary of a Biomechanist
  • salary is usually based on the amount of schooling and previous experience in the field
  • with an undergraduate degree and no experience, expect a starting salary between $18,000-$30,000
  • salary in this field, however, is highly affected by factors such as geographic location, experience, age, and the current demand of the market.
  • with an advanced degree, salary is expected to increase. However, the factors listed above would determine how substantial the increase would be.
research projects advanced space suit joint mobility study
Research Projects: Advanced space suit joint mobility study
  • The ABF has been assisting personnel in NASA's Crew and Thermal Systems Division in the evaluation of three advanced space suit prototypes. The ABF's role in these evaluations is to compare the mobility of the suits by collecting motion analysis data while subjects perform specific joint motions when wearing each suit. Once all of the motion analysis data are analyzed, the results will provide insight on how each suit affects a particular subject's joint mobility in relation to his/her unsuited motions, plus reveal the differences in mobility between the three suits.
hand grasp break away study
Hand grasp break-away study
  • With the advent of astronaut deployment and retrieval of satellites and other massive objects, concerns were raised about whether these mass-handling tasks would exceed the design-certified loads for the space suit. It was determined from simulations of satellite handling tasks that the maximum imparted load could be calculated from an astronaut's hand grasp breakaway strength. This is the strength of the hand while grasping a moving object, which involves dynamic eccentric contractions of the hand muscles.
hand grasp break away study68
Hand grasp break-away study
  • ABF personnel conducted a study to document hand grasp breakaway strengths of astronauts who were scheduled to perform extravehicular tasks during future missions. [Rajulu, S. L. and Klute, G. K. (1993). A Comparison of Hand Grasp Breakaway Strengths and Bare-Handed Grip Strengths of the Astronauts, SML III Test Subjects, and the Subjects from the General Population. NASA Technical Paper 3286].
  • The results of this study also revealed that hand grasp breakaway strength cannot be directly predicted from hand grip strength, which is the strength of the hand while gripping or squeezing a stationary object.
the neutral buoyancy laboratory
The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory:
  • The Sonny Carter Training Facility (SCTF) provides controlled neutral buoyancy operations to simulate the zero-g or weightless condition that is experienced by spacecraft and crew during space flight. It is an essential tool for the design, testing and development of the International Space Station and future NASA programs. For the astronaut, the facility provides important pre-flight training for extravehicular activities (EVA) and with the dynamics of body motion under weightless conditions. Also, be sure to read the rationale behind building the NBL -- a "better, faster, cheaper" solution for providing quality EVA preparations.
  • www.iti.unibe
references con t
References con’t…