University Biomechanics Chandra Mura Jill Helgesen Amee Alan Ziad Dahdul
Graduate Schools • University of Arizona • University of Michigan • University of Las Vegas • New York University • University of Southern California • The Johns Hopkins University
University of Arizona http://www.bme.arizona.edu/
Entrance Requirements: • Bachelor's degree in engineering, mathematics, or physical or life sciences, with a minimum GPA of 3.0 • General GRE scores, minimum of 500 verbal, 650 quantitative and 650 analytical • Coursework in calculus, ordinary differential equations, linear algebra & matrix methods; at least one course each in computing and life science • Additional paperwork as described in application
5 years doctoral full time 2 years master's full time Average Time for Program Completion:
University of Michigan www.engin.umich.edu/dept/meam
Entrance Requirements: • The Admissions Committee takes into consideration your GPA and GRE scores • Students with > 3.5 GPA and > 2100 GRE are almost always accepted. • Letters of recommendation • Your statement of purpose • Any work/research experience.
1-2 years MS full time 4-6 years PhD full time Average Time for Program Completion:
University of Las Vegas, Nevada http://www.unlv.edu/
Entrance Requirements: • 2.75 GPA overall or 3.0 during last 2 years • 1000 minimum combined GRE (any 2 combined)
Master’s Program: 2 years master's full time 3 years master's part time Average Time for Program Completion:
Admission Fee’shttp://www.per.ualberta.ca/biomechanics/bwwframe.htm *must have lived in Nevada for at least 12 consecutive months
New York University www.OIOC.org
Entrance Requirements: • 3.0 GPA • 1200 total GRE (V, A, Q)
Average Time for Program Completion: • 1.5 year for M.S. student full time • 3 years for M.S. student full time • 5 – 6 years for Ph.D. student
Admission Fee’shttp://www.nyu.edu/gsas/Admissions/TuitionandFees2004-05.html • TUITION PER POINT: $971 Tuition for 24 points = $23,304 • FEES FALL SEMESTER: First point = $292 Per point after first point = $52 • FEES SPRING SEMESTER: First point = $305 Per point after first point = $52 • In brief, for a full-time student registered for 24 points, the cost of tuition and fees will be $25,045
University of Southern California www.usc.edu
Entrance Requirements: BA or BS 1000 GRE Average Time for Program Completion: PhD, 3-5 years
Admission Fee’s:http://afaweb.esd.usc.edu/dcpage2.cfm?PageBaseID=50072 • Estimated Graduate Costs for 2 Semesters taking 8-14 units (tuition costs are per $1,010 per unit - this budget is based on 10 units of enrollment for 2 semesters.) • Tuition and mandatory fees-$24,724 • Estimated Graduate Costs for 2 Semesters taking 15+ units. (This budget is based on a flat rate of tuition for 2 semesters). • Tuition and mandatory fees-$30,472
The Johns Hopkins University http://www.bme.jhu.edu/
Entrance Requirements • GPA of 3.5 or higher • Official Graduate Record Examination scores (GRE) / MCAT scores will be acceptable. Research experience, course grades, and recommendations carry more weight • Three letters of recommendation - These letters should come from faculty members who are acquainted with you and your academic work. • Personal Statement - a typewritten statement (one page maximum) indicating the basis of your interest in graduate study and your career objectives. Included should be a discussion of any research experience you have had.
Admission Fee’s • Graduate Division of Education • $360 per credit for graduate-level courses except those offered in Washington, DC • The estimated cost for one year of graduate study is: $30,140.00
Financial Support: • All universities offer financial aid through teaching and research assistantships. • The primary duty of teaching assistants is assistance in all aspects of instruction (tutoring, grading, advising, sectional teaching, sectional laboratory teaching, field work teaching, limited lecturing) • The primary duty of research assistants is assistance in all aspects of university research. • Other financial aid options include fellowships, grants, and scholarships.
Sport BiomechancisSport Analysis by Perform Enhance Consultant Sport Biomechanists and Applied Anatomists
Perform Enhance • Perform Enhance is a company committed to the highest standards in sport skill and movement analysis • Established in 1971 by Geoff Hosford and Don Miekle who are leaders in the fields of sport biomechanics and applied anatomy • Perform Enhance offers the most comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical analyses of any selected skill
Perform Enhance • A written documentation service is offered to students, teachers, coaches and athletes. Each analysis will include: • 1. Phasic breakdown of the skill • 2. Critical elements in technique • 3. Identification of major faults • 4. Biomechanical principles and their application • 5.Anatomical analysis of specific muscles and major muscle groups • 6. Appropriate biomechanical and anatomical diagrams together with sequence photographs • 7. Programs for strength, conditioning and flexibility specific to your skill
Perform Enhance • Perform Enhance caters to various areas in which they are needed to perform a specific task. The following are areas in which Perform Enhance has been particularly useful: • Corporate Sport Administrators • Legal Fraternity • Private Investigators • Teachers of Physical Education • Sport Coaches • Students of Human Movement Science • Elite Athletes • Aspiring Sports Persons
Nike Laboratory • Nike Sports Research Lab sits in the Advanced Research and Development group. More importantly -- it's not in some offsite or outsourced location. It commands nearly 13,000 square feet and is decked out with state-of-the-art research equipment • These researchers, most all with master's degrees, many with their doctorates, in fields such as biomechanics and physiology
Nike Laboratory In simplest terms, their scientific work falls into three primary areas: • Biomechanics (study of human movement and related forces) • Physiology (study of the integration of the body's energy systems and responses to environmental stresses) • Sensory/perception (subjective evaluation of product attributes, usability, and durability) For each of those, researchers must take into account the nuances of at least four differentiating factors: • Geography. Runners in the United States often run on hard surfaces while runners in Europe prefer trails. That leads to different cushioning demands and different potential injuries. • Gender. On average, for any shoe size, women tend to weigh 10% to 50% less than men. That translates into different structural needs. • Age. Children learning to walk - and the lab has studied even them - have different stability needs than those of a master athlete. • Skill level. Someone learning to hit their first clean shot off the tee has different needs than Tiger Woods.
Nike Laboratory • To do all this, the scientists have an incredible array of measurement and analysis tools. Their data collection includes virtually every variety of muscle sensor, pressure platform, breath analyzer, foot scanner, and thermal imaging devices. Two of the most striking are the high-speed video cameras that capture soccer kick data at 1,000 frames per second and the scanner that produces in just seconds a perfect 3D digital image of your foot, even if you're a size 22, as was one recent visitor. • An array of testing surfaces, such as a huge section of regulation basketball hardwood, artificial soccer turf, and a 70-meter sprinter's track runway. The lab's doors are even specially designed to allow runners to circle through the lab and out into the carpeted hall so they need not slow their pace while being tested indoors. Then there's the endless field testing that takes place outdoors in various terrain.
Here's an abbreviated list of some scientific techniques the researchers use to quantify their finds: • Motion analysis (kinematics) • Ground reaction forces and loading rates (kinetics) • Foot-pressure measurement (in-shoe and external) • Ankle range of motion (ROM) • Foot morphology • Electromyography • High-speed video • Metabolic cart • Heart-rate monitors • Skin and core-temperature sensors • Blood work • Several other methods/devices the NSRL has created but which remain, obviously, confidential
Nike Laboratory • One of the lab's most crucial relationships is with Nike's Material and Mechanical ("M&M") Testing lab. Located just across the hall from the NSRL, the M&M lab has millions of dollars of custom-made testing equipment in roughly 7,000 square feet. Scientists there gauge everything from the breath ability and traction of a shoe to the durability and waterproof characteristics of specific apparel fabrics. One of their machines can, in just over 24 hours, put 1,000 miles of wear on a shoe. Unlike a human test subject, the machine doesn't get exhausted, bored, injured, or complain. If the lab needs a piece of testing equipment that doesn't exist, they build it.
Nike • The scientists and designers wanted to create a design and materials that would bounce back to the original shape every time a runner's force smashed them down. They knew they were on to something when they created four foam-filled columns to support a resilient plate immediately below the heel. The bendable plate and compressing columns absorb and then immediately release the energy of impact, helping propel a foot through the running stride. That makes for a more comfortable and protected run.
Orthotists and Prosthesists What they do: • Orthotists and Prosthesists design, produce, and fit devices such as artificial limbs, orthotic shoes and equipment, and replacement joints Where they work: • Private hospitals • Private practices • Rehabilitation facilities • Research labs
Ankle Foot Orthotics (AFO) Prosthetics
Requirements for becoming an Orthotist or Prosthesist • General requirements: • Bachelor’s degree in biomechanics, orthotics, or prosthetics (can also be other related major) • Graduate degree in orthotic and prosthesist program • Time served in a residency program to gain clinical experience Orthotists and prosthesists must also become certified by the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics
Average Salaries of Orthotists and Prosthesists From www.opcareers.org: • Non-certified practitioner: $30,752 • After 60 months: $46,289 • ABC-certified practitioner: $48,760 • After 60 months: $91,455 From www3.ccps.virginia.edu: Can make from anywhere between $40,000 and $150,000, with the average salary ranging from $49,000 to $60,000
Miscellaneous Information • Generally, the field is becoming more and more difficult for entrepreneurs because of the consolidation of smaller companies by the larger companies. So in this field, it would be much more difficult to climb the corporate ladder and become your own boss, although it’s not impossible • Contact or check out the American Orthotic and Prosthetic Association for more details on how to get involved in the field
Accident Re-simulation Vector Scientific Vector Scientific, Inc. provides high-quality consulting services and conducts high-level scientific research in order to advance the science of forensic engineering and biomechanics
Vector Scientific - Research • Auto Impact • New Neck Injury Dynamics in Rear-end Impacts • PCL, ACL, MCL Rupture in Auto Accident • Unique Pedestrian Impact Dynamics and Trajectory • Commercial Truck Accident Reconstruction • Sports and Recreation • Injury Mitigation Produced by Protective Pole Padding on Ski Terrain • Determination of Snowboarder vs. Snowboarder Impact Configuration Using Injury Biomechanics • Slip, Trip, and Fall • Lateral Tibial Plateau Fracture From a Stair Descent Misstep • Occupational • Nail Gun Knee Injury and Product Testing • Forensic Investigation of a Lumbar Disc Injury in an Industrial Setting
Vector Scientific • The experts at Vector Scientific have analyzed injury biomechanics in thousands of automobile accidents, from low-speed collisions with minor soft tissue injuries to high-speed collisions with severe and fatal injuries. • Crash tests are sometimes conducted to reconstruct specific cases and assess the impact severity and injury potential of the accident.
Exercise Physiology and Exercise Biomechanics of Space Flight Exercise Countermeasures • Located in Houston, Texas • A research center that is affiliated with NASA
The Goals and Objectives: • To support pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight medical physical fitness testing operations • To assist in the development of astronaut physical conditioning programs
The Goals and Objectives: • To evaluate and validate exercise countermeasure equipment, procedures, protocols, and conditioning programs related to the maintenance of crew health and performance during Space Shuttle and International Space Station Missions • To understand the effect of microgravity on human performance during and after exposure to weightlessness and space flight
Exercise Physiology and Exercise Biomechanics of Space Flight Exercise Countermeasures The Laboratory also evaluates in-flight exercise responses and activity patterns as a way of evaluating and validating exercise countermeasure concepts. Research areas include cardiorespiratory functional capacity, musculoskeletal strength development and maintenance, orthostatic intolerance, biomechanics of movement, bone metabolism, and modeling of space-flight exercise activity patterns.