Chapter 16 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

afram
chapter 16 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 16 PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 30
Download Presentation
Chapter 16
225 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 16

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 16 Blood

  2. About this Chapter • Plasma and the cellular elements of blood • Blood cell production • Red blood cells • Platelets and coagulation

  3. Composition of Blood Amino acids Albumins Water Globulins Proteins Ions Fibrinogen Glucose iscomposedof Organicmolecules BLOOD such as Plasma Lipids Nitrogenouswaste Trace elementsand vitamins CO2 such as Gases O2 Figure 16-1 (1 of 2)

  4. Composition of Blood Lymphocytes Red bloodcells Monocytes iscomposedof Cellularelements Whiteblood cells include BLOOD Neutrophils Platelets m 0 Eosinophils 5 10 15 Basophils Figure 16-1 (2 of 2)

  5. Plasma Proteins Table 16-1

  6. Cellular Elements • Three main cellular elements • Red blood cells – also called erythrocytes • Platelets – split off from megakaryocytes • White blood cells – also called leukocytes • Lymphocytes – are also called immunocytes • Monocytes – develop into macrophages • Neutrophils – neutrophils along with monocytes and macrophages are known as phagocytes • Eosinophils – eosinophils along with neutrophils and basophils are also called granulocytes • Basophils – tissue basophils are called mast cells

  7. Hematopoiesis Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell Uncommittedstem cells Committedprogenitor cells Lymphocytestem cells BONE MARROW Erythroblast Megakaryocyte Figure 16-2 (1 of 2)

  8. Hematopoiesis BONE MARROW Erythroblast Megakaryocyte Reticulocyte CIRCULATION Erythrocyte Platelets Neutrophil Monocyte Lymphocyte Basophil Eosinophil Figure 16-2 (2 of 2)

  9. Blood Cells Table 16-2

  10. Clinical Tests • Hematocrit: ratio of red blood cells to plasma MALES FEMALES Hematocrit 40%–54% 37%–47% Hemoglobin (g Hb/dL* blood) 14–17 12–16 Red cell count (cells/µL) 4.5–6.5 x 106 3.9–5.6 x 106 Total white cell count (cells/µL) 4–11 x 103 4–11 x 103 58%plasmavolume  Differential white cell count Neutrophils 50%–70% 50%–70% Eosinophils 1%–4% 1%–4% Basophils <1% <1% 100% Lymphocytes 20%–40% 20%–40% Monocytes 2%–8% 2%–8% <1%whitecells Platelets (per µL) 150–450 x 103 150–450 x 103 *1 deciliter (dL) = 100 mL 42%packedred cellvolume Figure 16-3

  11. Focus on … Bone Marrow Bonemarrow (a) Figure 16-4a

  12. Focus on … Bone Marrow Bonecortex Central sinus Stroma ofmarrow Radialartery Venoussinuses Nutrientartery (b) Figure 16-4b

  13. Focus on … Bone Marrow Mature blood cells squeezethrough the endothelium toreach the circulation. Stem cell Platelets Reticulocyteexpellingnucleus Matureneutrophil Fragments of megakaryocytebreak off to become platelets. Venous sinus Reticularfiber Reticular cell Stem cell Macrophage Monocyte The stroma is composed offibroblast-like reticular cells,collagenous fibers, andextracellular matrix. Lymphocyte (c) Figure 16-4c

  14. Red Blood Cells Cytoskeletonfilament Attachmentprotein Actin (a) SEM shows biconcave disk shapeof RBCs. (b) Cross section of RBC (c) The cytoskeleton creates theunique shape of RBCs. Figure 16-5

  15. Osmotic Changes to Red Blood Cells • The disk-like structure of red blood cells allows them to modify their shape in response to osmotic changes Figure 16-6

  16. Iron Homeostasis and Metabolism Iron (Fe)in diet 1 Iron comes from the diet. 1 Intestine Plasma Bone Marrow 2 Fe absorbed by activetransport. 5 3 RBCsynthesis 2 Heme Fe Hb Fe・transferrin Fe 3 Transferrin proteintransports Fe in plasma. RBC Hb 4 Liver stores excess Fe asferritin. Spleen Old RBCsdestroyed 5 Bone marrow uses Fe tomake hemoglobin (Hb). 6 Hb Bilirubin 6 Spleen converts Hb tobilirubin. Liver 4 Kidney 7 Liver metabolizes bilirubinand excretes it in bile. Ferritin Bilirubinmetabolism Bilirubin +metabolites 8 8 7 Bile 8 Bilirubin metabolites areexcreted in urine and feces. Bilirubinmetabolitesin feces Bilirubinmetabolitesin urine Figure 16-7

  17. Red Blood Cells • Live for about 120 days • Hemoglobin components are recycled • Amino acids are incorporated into new proteins • Some iron from heme groups reused in new heme groups • Remnants of heme groups are converted to bilirubin, then excreted as bile • Jaundice results from elevated levels of bilirubin

  18. Red Blood Cells Table 16-3

  19. Sickled Red Blood Cells • Morphology can provide clues to the presence of disease Figure 16-8

  20. Platelets Form from Megakaryocytes Megakaryocytes are giant cells withmultiple copies of DNA in the nucleus. The edges of the megakaryocytebreak off to form cell fragmentscalled platelets Platelets Red blood cell Endoplasmicreticulum (a) Figure 16-9a

  21. Overview of Hemostasis and Tissue Repair Damage towall ofblood vessel Collagenexposed Tissue factorexposed Platelets adhere andreleaseplateletfactors 1 Vasoconstriction Coagulationcascade 2 Thrombinformation Platelets aggregateinto loose plateletplug Convertsfibrinogento fibrin 3 Temporaryhemostasis Clot: reinforcedplatelet plug Fibrin slowlydissolved byplasmin Cell growth andtissue repair Clot dissolves Intact bloodvessel wall Figure 16-10

  22. Platelet Plug Formation 1 Exposed collagen bindsand activates platelets. Lumen ofblood vessel 3 2 Release of platelet factors Preventsplateletadhesion 3 4 Intactendothelium Factors attract more platelets. 2 Releasesprostacyclinand NO 4 Platelets aggregate intoplatelet plug. 1 Smoothmuscle cells Collagensubendotheliallayer Exposed collagenin damaged bloodvessel wall ECF Figure 16-11

  23. Clotting Process Table 16-4

  24. The Coagulation Cascade INTRINSIC PATHWAY EXTRINSIC PATHWAY Collagen or otheractivators Damage exposestissue factor (III) XII Active XII VII XI Ca2+ Active XI Tissue factor(III) andactive VII IX Ca2+ positive feedback Active IX VIII Ca2+ X phospholipids (PL) Active X COMMON PATHWAY Prothrombin Ca2+,V, PL , positive feedback Thrombin Fibrinogen XIII Fibrin Active XIII Ca2+ Cross-linked fibrin Figure 16-12

  25. Coagulation and Fibrinolysis Fibrinolysis Coagulation Clot Thrombin Plasminogen tPA Fibrinogen Plasmin Fibrinpolymer Fibrinfragments Figure 16-13

  26. Coagulation Table 16-5

  27. Coagulation Table 16-6

  28. Coagulation Figure 16-14

  29. Summary • Plasma and cellular elements • Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and megakaryocytes • Plasma proteins and their functions • Five types of white blood cells • Blood cell production • Hematopoiesis and cytokines

  30. Summary • Red blood cell • Transferrin, ferritin, bilirubin, bile, and jaundice • Platelets and coagulation • Hemostasis, platelet plug, platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation, and fibrin • Coagulation cascade, fibrinogen, thrombin, plasmin, prostacyclin, and anticoagulants