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A Planning Process. UNSOC. UNSOC. THE PLANNING PROCESS - with case studies. UNSOC. Learning Objectives. To understand the main steps in the Planning Process. To contribute to the work with each step in the Planning Process. INITIATION. ORIENTATION. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT. PLAN

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A Planning Process


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    1. A Planning Process UNSOC

    2. UNSOC THE PLANNING PROCESS-with case studies

    3. UNSOC Learning Objectives • To understand the main steps in the Planning Process. • To contribute to the work with each step in the Planning Process.

    4. INITIATION ORIENTATION CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN REVIEW • CONDUCT MISSION ANALYSIS • MISSION ANALYSIS • BRIEFING • STAFF ANALYSIS • DEVELOP COAs • COA DECISION • BRIEFING • DEVELOP CONOPS • PLAN REVIEW • PLAN EVAL • RECEIVE • ORDER • GATHER INFO • DEVELOP • CO-ORDINATE • SEEK APROVAL • ISSUE PLAN CO’S PLANNING GUIDANCE CONOPS OPLAN DISTRIBUTED (MAIN BODY + ANNEXES) UPDATED OPLAN/ OPORD OUTPUT UNSOC Phases and Outputs

    5. UNSOC Planning Process - Staff Involvement Plan Review Plan Development Concept Development Orientation Initiation CO COS CMPO MIO COO CLO CMC FWF COA DEVELOP. COA DECISION BRIEFING MISSION ANALYSIS BRIEFING COA COMPARISON REVIEW PLAN STAFF ANALYSIS GATHER INFO MISSION ANALYSIS WRITE OPLAN/OPORD OWN COA DEVELOP.

    6. UNSOC THE PLANNING CYCLE Estimates OPLAN/ OPORD COA Decision Briefing CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PHASE PLAN DEVELOPMENT PHASE Mission Analysis Briefing PLAN REVIEW PHASE Mission analysis Control - new mission Mission ORIENTATION PHASE INITIATION PHASE

    7. This part of the Planning Process is only for analysis - not planning UNSOC THE PLANNING CYCLE Estimates OPLAN/ OPORD COA Decision Briefing CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PHASE PLAN DEVELOPMENT PHASE Mission Analysis Briefing PLAN REVIEW PHASE Mission analysis Control - new mission Mission ORIENTATION PHASE INITIATION PHASE

    8. This part of the Planning Process is only for planning UNSOC THE PLANNING CYCLE Estimates OPLAN/ OPORD COA Decision Briefing CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PHASE PLAN DEVELOPMENT PHASE Mission Analysis Briefing PLAN REVIEW PHASE Mission analysis Control - new mission Mission ORIENTATION PHASE INITIATION PHASE

    9. This part of the Planning Process is only for documentation of the decision taken by the commander UNSOC THE PLANNING CYCLE Estimates OPLAN/ OPORD COA Decision Briefing CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PHASE PLAN DEVELOPMENT PHASE Mission Analysis Briefing PLAN REVIEW PHASE Mission analysis Control - new mission Mission ORIENTATION PHASE INITIATION PHASE

    10. This part of the Planning Process is only for controlling. Demands for changes will result in a new planning process - starts from the beginning!!!!! UNSOC THE PLANNING CYCLE Estimates OPLAN/ OPORD COA Decision Briefing CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PHASE PLAN DEVELOPMENT PHASE Mission Analysis Briefing PLAN REVIEW PHASE Mission analysis Control - new mission Mission ORIENTATION PHASE INITIATION PHASE

    11. In a complicated mission • there can be many staff meetings • - in a simple task only few - • but you will always have • MISSION ANALYSIS BRIEFING • COA DECISION BRIEFING Estimates UNSOC THE PLANNING CYCLE Estimates OPLAN/ OPORD COA Decision Briefing CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PHASE PLAN DEVELOPMENT PHASE Mission Analysis Briefing PLAN REVIEW PHASE Mission analysis Control - new mission Mission ORIENTATION PHASE INITIATION PHASE

    12. UNSOC Mission Analysis The aim of the mission analysis is to identify the boundaries of the problem. This includes: • interpretation and definition of the given order • conditions that may affect the mission • review of own and opposing forces to determine strengths and weaknesses.

    13. This can also be done in a staff meeting - COS Mission Analysis - and is normally done by the COS - in co-op with branch Heads. MISSION ANALYSIS STEPS UNSOC Step 1. Analyse the higher commander’s order. Step 2. Conduct Initial Intelligence Preparation (Situation overview). Step 3. Analyse Higher Commander’s Intent, Mission, Objectives and Desired End State. Step 4. Identify Planning Limitations. Step 5. Identify Assumptions. Step 6. Identify critical Facts Step 7. Strengths and Weaknesses (both opposing and own forces). Step 8. Centres of Gravity (COG)/Decisive Points Step 9. Identify/determine Tasks (assigned, implied and essential) Step 10. Determine Own Objectives, Desired End State and Criteria for Success Step 11. Write the restated mission (WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE AND WHY). Step 12. Conduct a mission analysis briefing Step 13. Approve the restated mission. Step 14. Develop the commander's initial intent. Step 15. Issue the commander's guidance. Step 16. Issue a warning order. Step 17. Review facts and assumptions. MISSION ANALYSIS: For a complex mission it might be a longer procedure - For a simple mission we might be doing this in minutes!

    14. MISSION ANALYSIS Higher Commander´s Plan • Commander´s Intent: Two Levels Up • Mission: • Tasks: Specified, Implied, Essential • Constraints & Restraints • Risk • Available Forces • Area Of Operations / Interest • Concept Of Operation • Timeline STEP 1/3

    15. CMTC KITTENSEE RAVERSDORF ENSLWANG OBERSCHWEND UBUNGSDORF ALBERTSHOF INITIAL INFORMATION PREPARATION OF THE AOR • Systematic and Continuous Process • Defines the Area of Responsibility (AOR) & Initial Collection • Efforts • Analysis & Estimates Threat & Effects of the AOR • Assists the Staff to focus the Planning; • -Development of COAs, collection of info, etc. • Produces specific Products; • -Situation Template STEP 2

    16. Planning Limitations Exist as restraints, constraints and pre-conditions for success. • Restraints limit what may be done - must not do! • Constraints impose obligations that must be met. • Pre-conditions stated by CO as essential for mission success. STEP 4

    17. ODZAK 1st BDE BRCKO DOBOJ UGLJEVIC TUZLA KLADANJ ZVORNIK 2nd BDE TOMICI MISSION ANALYSIS Assumptions Assumptions state essential conditions which must exist if a specific plan is to succeed -- take the place of facts -- must be valid and necessary -- regularly validate assumptions. STEP 5 Examples from SFOR / KFOR: Population generally support the implementation of the Peace Agreement and the presence of Peace Troops in AOR.

    18. UNSOC Facts and Assumptions STEP 6 Three-step thinking: 1. Facts or Assumptions (Critical?) 2. Consequences 3. Conclusions “What does it mean to me??” “What do I need to do??”

    19. UNSOC Strengths and Weakness STEP 7 • Identify both opposing and own forces 2. Conclusions “What does it mean to me??”

    20. Centre of Gravity (COG) • “the Point against which all energies should be directed”. STEP 8 • Exist at strategic, operational and tactical levels. • “the Hub of all power and movement on which everything depends”.

    21. Centre of Gravity(COG) (Continued) • The COG is that characteristic, capability, locality, from which a military force derives its freedom ofaction, physical strength or will to fight. • If attacked, destroyed, neutralised or eliminated, will lead to inevitable defeat or wish for peace. STEP 8

    22. Centre of Gravity (COG)(Continued) “Exploit FWF COG, while protecting Own COG” STEP 8

    23. Decisive Points (DPs) • DPs are keys to getting at the COGs. • May exist in time, space or in the information environment. • Geographical in nature, but can be linked to attainment of specific capabilities or to elements of combat functions STEP 8

    24. Decisive Points (DPs)(Continued) • Control of DPs provides CO with possibility to greatly influence the outcome of an action. • Proper action at DPs allows the CO to gain initiative, retain freedom of operational manoeuvre and maintain momentum. STEP 8

    25. Centre of Gravity (COG)An Example Operational: • Bogaland Kasurian • Stability and Independency from Valla • Bogaland Midian • Stability in whole Bogaland • UNMIB • Implementation of UN Mandate STEP 8

    26. Decisive Points DPs(Examples) • Prepare a Contingency Plan for Ops within Enclave. • Negotiations with Parties. • Liaison with UN Agencies in AOR. • Arms embargo operations. • Maintain Freedom of movement (FOM). • Support of International Organisations/ NGO´s. • Information Operations. • Maintain the security in the whole AOR and in the ZOS. • Co-ordinate C2, Comms, liaison, and operational requirements.. STEP 8

    27. TASKSSpecified/Implied/Essential • Essential tasks could consist of both specified and implied tasks, are necessary for mission accomplishment. STEP 9 • Specified tasks are stated in higher CO´s order. • Implied tasks are those not mentioned in the order, but are identified when analysing the order.

    28. Desired End State • A descriptive statement of the political and military conditions that indicate mission completion. • Likely to be general in nature, not to limit the CO´s method of achieving the mission. STEP 10

    29. Criteria for Success STEP 10 • Because the End State is general or broad, it may be hard to determine mission success. • Measurable criteria to determine achievement of End State.

    30. Restated Mission Force Commander´s Order 2.Mission 3.Execution a. Concept of Operations (1) Commander´s Intent (2) Scheme of Manoeuvre b. Tasks to Manoeuvre units (UNMIB) STEP 11 UNMIB Order 2.Mission 3.Execution a. Concept of Operations (1) Commander´s Intent (2) Scheme of Manoeuvre b. Tasks to Manoeuvre units Mission statement should answer the questions: WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE AND WHY

    31. Mission Statement(Example) STEP 11 “UNMIB will NLT D+2 until further notice conduct Peace Support Operations in assigned AOR in Bogaland. UNMIB will establish and maintain a Zone of Separation and effectively separate the Parties´ Forces. Operations will be executed in co-operation with other civilian organisations, together with local authorities in order to establish and maintain a safe and secure environment for local population and humanitarian agencies.” WHO WHEN WHAT WHERE WHY

    32. MISSION ANALYSIS BRIEFING WHOWHAT COS Purpose and Agenda, Mission. COO General situation, HQ or higher Commanders Intent, Concept of Operation, Centers of Gravity, Desired End-state. MIO Initial Information's Preparation. Terrain/Weather Analysis, Threat Evaluation. COO Specified, Implied, Essential Tasks. Facts, Assumptions, Limitations. Conclusions: Shortfalls/Critical obstacles/Recommendations. CMPO Personnel Estimate. Conclusions: Shortfalls/Critical obstacles/Recommendations. CLO Logistics Estimate. Conclusions: Shortfalls/Critical obstacles/Recommendations. CMCOORD Civil Military Affairs Estimate. Conclusions: Shortfalls/Critical obstacles/Recommendations. COMMS COMMS Estimate Conclusions: Shortfalls/Critical obstacles/Recommendations. COS Request Commander´s Guidance. STEP 12

    33. COMMANDER'S INITIAL INTENT STEP 14 • CommanderPERSONALLYPrepares his Intent • Must be UNDERSTOODTwo Levels Down • Clear, Concise Statement ofthe SUCCESS CRITERIAwith respect to the SITUATION, the TERRAIN and to theDESIRED ENDSTATE. • KEY TASKSthat are the basis for initiative of Subordinates. • BROADER PURPOSEbeyond the MISSION.

    34. Prepare to receive, contain, protect and provide basic needs to refugees crossing the border from TEDA to VALLA in order to hand these refugees over to UNHCR as soon as possible. On request UNMIB will support UNHCR to set up protected camps or other accommodations in case of a greater numbers of refugees crossing in to VALLA . The task has been given to the Military Component BLUEPOCKET Teda BLUETOWN x x MAIN ROAD Valla 0 KM 5 KM

    35. UNSOC First task:Prepare the mission analysis briefing for First Staff Conference

    36. UNSOC Case Study No 1:Conduct the Mission Analysis and prepare for the Mission Analysis Briefing.

    37. UNSOC “SUGGESTED SOLUTION”Case Study No 1 Mission Analysis Briefing (Hand-out)

    38. We will now focus on the next part of the planning process PfPSOC THE PLANNING CYCLE Estimates OPLAN/ OPORD COA Decision Briefing CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PHASE PLAN DEVELOPMENT PHASE Mission Analysis Briefing PLAN REVIEW PHASE Mission analysis Control - new mission Mission ORIENTATION PHASE INITIATION PHASE

    39. INITIATION ORIENTATION CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN REVIEW • CONDUCT MISSION ANALYSIS • MISSION ANALYSIS • BRIEFING • STAFF ANALYSIS • DEVELOP COAs • COA DECISION • BRIEFING • DEVELOP CONOPS • PLAN REVIEW • PLAN EVAL • RECEIVE • ORDER • GATHER INFO • DEVELOP • CO-ORDINATE • SEEK APROVAL • ISSUE PLAN CO’S PLANNING GUIDANCE CONOPS OPLAN DISTRIBUTED (MAIN BODY + ANNEXES) UPDATED OPLAN/ OPORD OUTPUT UNSOC Phases and Outputs

    40. UNSOC Concept Development The final product of this planning phase is a CONOPS based on a single Own COA, chosen by the Commander. Four steps are carried out during this phase: • Staff Analysis • Development of COAs (opposing forces and own) • Decision Briefing • CONOPS Development

    41. Staff Analysis To examine factors and deductions and to identify assumptions relevant to the mission in order to: Ascertain whether the mission is achievable. Develop COA that are viable and supportable. Factors to examine are: Overall Situation in AOR FWF Situation & Capabilities Own Forces Situation & Capabilities Terrain & Weather Command & Control CMTC KITTENSEE RAVERSDORF ENSLWANG OBERSCHWEND UBUNGSDORF ALBERTSHOF UNSOC

    42. CMTC KITTENSEE RAVERSDORF ENSLWANG OBERSCHWEND UBUNGSDORF ALBERTSHOF INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE AOR (Continued) UNSOC • Systematic and Continuous Process • Defines the AOR & Initial Collection Efforts • Analysis & Estimates Threat & Effects of the AOR • Environment • Development of COAs; • The Most Likely & the Most Dangerous, with Objectives • Produces specific Products; • -Situation Template

    43. Development of FWF COA´s Identify the players. (civil population, police, military, rebels) Mark their location on the map. What can they do? Develop COAs by brainstorming. Decide what COA is the Most Likely and the Most Dangerous. Describe also what objectives they have in each COA. UNSOC

    44. UNSOC FORMER WARRING FACTIONS Considerations: Commander Objectives? Force Structure/Order of Battle? Intelligence Capabilities? Most Likely/Dangerous COA? Critical Vulnerabilities? Constraints and Restrictions? Recent Tactical Performance? Sustainment Capability? • Situational Template • Plot Unit Locations • Display Likely Actions Used • For Subsequent Planning • Example : • Not only Military units are players. Police, Paramilitary units, Criminal Gangs and Civilians are players as well and must be assessed too.

    45. UNSOC TERRAIN Considerations : Area of Operation/Area of Interest? Key Terrain -- Decisive Terrain? Areas of Critical Movement Constriction? Movement Rate Estimates? Terrain Protection from Enemy Recce? Logistics Infrastructure? Area Where FWF Are Most Vulnerable? • Key Terrain • Obstacles • Avenues of Approach • Concealment and Cover • Observation & Fields of Fire • Terrain: • Slope/Line Of Sight • Elevation • Vegetation • Soil and Water • Mobility • Example : • Main Supply Routes and roads in general are very important to • maintain Freedom of movement, mainly due to mine threat.

    46. N Temperature High Low Winds UNSOC WEATHER Considerations for COAs: Visibility? Rain? Snow? Sleet? Humidity?...Air Density? Cloud Cover/Ceiling...Fog? Natural Light and Illumination DAY BMNT Sunrise EENT Sunset Moonrise Illumination Moonset • Example : • No aviation support by helicopter during long periods due to • rain seasons, low clouds and dense fog

    47. UNSOC Planning Process - Staff Involvement Plan Review Plan Development Concept Development Orientation Initiation CO COS CMPO MIO COO CLO CMC FWF COA DEVELOP. COA DECISION BRIEFING MISSION ANALYSIS BRIEFING COA COMPARISON REVIEW PLAN STAFF ANALYSIS GATHER INFO MISSION ANALYSIS WRITE OPLAN/OPORD OWN COA DEVELOP.

    48. UNSOC • Case Study No 2: • PRODUCE THE FWF COA • Most likely • Most dangerous • Assessment of the FWFobjectives.