24 th annual naehcy conference albuquerque new mexico october 2012 n.
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24 th Annual NAEHCY Conference Albuquerque, New Mexico October, 2012. Educating Children and Youth in Homeless Situations: Laws, Policies, and How They Work in Real Life. Our Agenda. Background and context Eligibility and identification Making the law work for real children and youth: Ben

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24 th annual naehcy conference albuquerque new mexico october 2012
24th Annual NAEHCY Conference

Albuquerque, New Mexico

October, 2012

Educating Children and Youth in Homeless Situations:Laws, Policies, and How They Work in Real Life

our agenda
Our Agenda
  • Background and context
  • Eligibility and identification
  • Making the law work for real children and youth:
    • Ben
    • Stephanie
    • Rochelle & Matthew
    • Sofia
causes of homelessness
Causes of Homelessness
  • Lack of affordable housing
    • Foreclosures
  • Poverty
    • Economic recession
    • Unemployment
  • Health problems
    • Lack of health insurance
    • Addiction disorders, Mental health
  • Domestic violence
  • Natural and other disasters
  • Abuse/neglect/family dysfunction (unaccompanied youth)
how many children and youth experience homelessness
How many children and youth experience homelessness?
  • 10% of all children living in poverty over the course of a year.
  • Public schools identified 1,065,794 homeless students; a 57% increase since 2007
  • 53% of all children in HUD-funded shelters are under the age of 6.
barriers to education for homeless children and youth
Barriers to Education forHomeless Children and Youth
  • Lack of awareness; under-identification
  • High mobility resulting in lack of school stability and educational continuity
  • Poor health, fatigue, hunger
  • Prejudice and misunderstanding
  • Enrollment requirements (school records, health records, proof of residence and guardianship)
  • Lack of transportation
  • Lack of school supplies, clothing, etc.
mckinney vento homeless assistance act
McKinney-VentoHomeless Assistance Act
  • Reauthorized 2002 by NCLB
  • Main themes:
    • Identification
    • School stability
    • School access
    • Support for academic success
    • Child-centered, best interest decision making
local homeless education liaisons
Local HomelessEducation Liaisons
  • Every LEA must designate a liaison for students in homeless situations.
  • Responsibilities-
    • Ensure that children and youth in homeless situations are identified.
    • Ensure that homeless students enroll in and have full and equal opportunity to succeed in school.
    • Link with educational services, including preschool and health services.
    • Resolve disputes and assist with transportation.
eligibility who is covered
Eligibility—Who is Covered?
  • Children who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence—
    • Sharing the housing of others due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or similar reason

[72% of identified homeless students in 2010-2011]

    • Living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, camping grounds due to lack of adequate alternative accommodations

[Motels: 5% of identified homeless students in 2010-11]

eligibility who is covered1
Eligibility— Who is Covered?
  • Children who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence—
    • Living in emergency or transitional shelters

[18% of identified homeless students in 2010-11]

    • Living in a public or private place not designed for humans to live
    • Living in cars, parks, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings
    • Migratory children living in above circumstances
    • Awaiting foster care placement
determining eligibility
Case-by-case determination

Get as much information as possible (with sensitivity and discretion)

Look at the MV definition (specific examples in the definition first, then overall definition)

Shared housing considerations:

Where would you go if you couldn’t stay here?

What led you to move in to this situation?

NCHE’s Determining Eligibility brief is available at http://www.serve.org/nche/downloads/briefs/det_elig.pdf

Determining Eligibility
identification strategies
Identification Strategies
  • Avoid using the word "homeless” with school personnel, families, or youth.
  • Provide awareness activities for school staff (registrars, secretaries, counselors, nurses, teachers, tutors, bus drivers, security officers, drop out prevention specialists, administrators, etc.).
    • http://www.naehcy.org/training.html
    • http://center.serve.org/nche/web/online_tr.php
  • Coordinate with community service agencies, such as shelters, soup kitchens, public assistance and housing agencies, and public health departments.
identification strategies cont
Identification Strategies (cont.)
  • Post outreach materials and posters in all schools and where there is a frequent influx of low-income families and youth in high-risk situations, including motels, campgrounds, libraries, youth centers.
    • http://www.k12.wa.us/HomelessEd/
  • Use enrollment and withdrawal forms to inquire about living situations.
    • www.utdanacenter.org/theo/downloads/factsheets/RP14_SRQ.doc
identification strategies cont1
Identification Strategies (cont.)
  • Make special efforts to identify preschool children, including asking about the siblings of school-aged children.
  • Develop relationships with truancy officials and/or other attendance officers.
  • Enlist youth to spread the word.
  • “MV-FAFSA Week”: naehcy.org/tk/tk.html
  • Make sure data entry and database managers know how to enter, maintain and report information.
scenario 1 ben
Scenario 1: Ben
  • Eligibility
  • School Stability
  • Transportation
research on school stability
Research on School Stability
  • Demonstration project in WA showed that school stability for homeless students increases assessment scores and grades.
  • Mobility also hurts non-mobile students; study found average test scores for non-mobile students were significantly lower in high schools with high student mobility rates.
  • Students who changed high schools even once during high school were less than half as likely as stable students to graduate, even controlling for other factors.
research on school stability cont
Study published in the Archives of Psychiatry found that youth aged 11 to 17 were twice as likely to attempt suicide if their families moved three or more times compared to those who had never moved.

Victoria, TX adopted a “One Child, One School, One Year” policy.

ADA increased $1.6 million.

TAKS scores increased significantly.

Research on School Stability (cont.)
school stability key provisions
School Stability— Key Provisions
  • Students can stay in their school of origin for the duration of homeless and until the end of the school year when they find permanent housing, as long as that is in their best interest.
  • School of origin—school attended when permanently housed or in which last enrolled.
  • Best interest—keep homeless students in their schools of origin, to the extent “feasible”, unless this is against the parents’ or guardians’ wishes.
  • Can always also choose the local school (any school others living in the same area are eligible to attend).
feasibility used criteria
Feasibility— USED Criteria
  • A child-centered, individualized determination
  • Continuity of instruction
  • Age of the child or youth
  • Safety of the child or youth
  • Likely length of stay in temporary housing
  • Likely area where family will find permanent housing
  • Student’s need for special instructional programs
  • Impact of commute on education
  • School placement of siblings
  • Time remaining in the school year
transportation key provisions
Transportation—Key Provisions
  • LEAs must provide transportation to and from their school of origin, at a parent’s or guardian’s request (or at the liaison’s request for unaccompanied youth).
    • If crossing LEA lines, they must determine how to divide the responsibility and share the cost, or they must share the cost equally.
transportation key provisions1
Transportation—Key Provisions

2. LEAs also must provide students in homeless situations with transportation services comparable to those provided to other students.

3. LEAs must eliminate barriers to the school enrollment and retention of students experiencing homelessness (including transportation barriers).

transportation strategies
Transportation Strategies
  • Develop close ties among local liaisons, school staff, pupil transportation staff, and shelter workers.
  • Use school buses (including special education, magnet school and other buses).
  • Develop formal or informal agreements with school districts where homeless children cross district lines.
  • Use public transit where feasible.
  • Use approved carpools, van or taxi services.
  • Reimburse parents and youth for gas.
  • Pursue inter-agency solutions
school stability resources
School Stability Resources
  • School of origin vs. Local school:


  • Transportation:



scenario 1 ben1
Scenario 1: Ben
  • Ben has been at West Elementary for about three months when his mother tells the school secretary that she needs her child’s records. She’s moving in with her cousin across town and is going to transfer Ben to the school her cousin’s children attend. Ben’s teacher calls you and asks what can be done. Ben is just starting to work well in the class, and his teacher would be sorry to see him leave.
  • Is Ben eligible for McKinney-Vento services?
  • Can Ben stay at West Elementary School?
  • What about transportation?
scenario 2 stephanie
Scenario 2: Stephanie
  • Immediate enrollment
  • Unaccompanied youth
  • Dispute resolution
school enrollment key provisions
School Enrollment— Key Provisions
  • If remaining in the school of origin is not feasible, children and youth in homeless situations are entitled to immediate enrollment in any public school that students living in the same attendance area are eligible to attend.
  • The terms “enroll” and “enrollment” include attending classes and participating fully in school activities.
enrollment key provisions cont
Enrollment— Key Provisions (cont.)
  • Enrollment must be immediate, even if students do not have required documents, such as school records, health records, proof of residency or guardianship, or other documents.
  • If a student does not have immunizations, or immunization or medical records, the liaison must immediately assist in obtaining them, and the student must be enrolled in the interim.
enrollment key provisions cont1
Enrollment— Key Provisions (cont.)
  • Enrolling schools must obtain school records from the previous school, and students must be enrolled in school while records are obtained.
  • Schools must maintain records for students who are homeless so they are available quickly.
  • SEAs and LEAs must develop, review, and revise policies to remove barriers to the enrollment and retention of children and youth in homeless situations.
immediate enrollment strategies
Immediate Enrollment— Strategies
  • Request all records from the previous school immediately, including immunization records.
    • Parental signature is not required for transfer students (FERPA).
    • The vast majority of students have been enrolled in school before and have received immunizations.
  • Speak with parents and youth about the classes the student was in, previous coursework and special needs.
  • Call the counselor, teachers or principal at the previous school for information.
  • Ensure enrollment staff on every campus are aware of the law and procedures.
unaccompanied youth who are they
Unaccompanied Youth--Who Are They?
  • Definition: child or youth who meets the definition of homeless and is not in the physical custody of a parent or guardian.
  • Some youth become homeless with their families, but end up on their own due to lack of space in temporary accommodations or shelter policies that prohibit adolescent boys.
    • 60% of homeless mothers live apart from at least one of their minor children; 35% live apart from all their children.
    • 93% of homeless fathers live apart from all their children.
who are they cont
Who Are They? (cont.)

Studies have found that 20 to 50 percent of unaccompanied youth were sexually abused in their homes, while 40 to 60 percent were physically abused.

Over two-thirds of callers to Runaway Hotline report that at least one of their parents abuses drugs or alcohol.

Over half of youth living in shelters report that their parents either told them to leave, or knew they were leaving and did not care.

who are they cont1
Who Are They? (cont.)
  • 20-40% of homeless youth identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (compared to 3-5% of the overall population).
  • 25-40% of youth who emancipate from foster care will end up homeless.
  • Many youth have been thrown out of their homes due to pregnancy.
    • 48% of street youth have been pregnant or impregnated someone.
    • 10% of currently homeless female teens are pregnant.
unaccompanied youth key provisions
Unaccompanied Youth—Key Provisions
  • Immediate enrollment applies, even without parent or guardian.
    • Youth self-enrollment
    • Caregiver form
  • Liaisons must help unaccompanied youth choose and enroll in a school, after considering the youth’s wishes, and inform the youth of his or her appeal rights.
  • School personnel must be made aware of the specific needs of runaway and homeless youth.
parental disapproval school liability
Parental disapproval / school liability
  • Liability: based on the concept of negligence, or a failure to exercise reasonable care.
    • Following federal law and providing appropriate services are evidence of reasonable care.
    • Violating federal law and denying services are evidence of negligence.
    • Be reasonable based on the circumstances
    • Talk with the youth
contacting police and child welfare
Contacting police and child welfare
  • MV requires eliminating barriers to enrollment and retention in school.
    • Arrest, custody and foster care are threats and barriers to unaccompanied youth.
    • Schools must enroll youth immediately. School is the safest and best place for youth.
  • Educators are mandated to report suspected abuse and/or neglect (homelessness alone is not abuse/neglect) to child welfare.
  • Build relationships with law enforcement, juvenile justice and local child welfare.
unaccompanied youth strategies
Unaccompanied Youth—Strategies
  • Develop clear policies for enrolling unaccompanied youth immediately, whether youth enroll themselves, liaisons do enrollment, caretakers enroll youth in their care, or another procedure is in place.
  • Train local liaisons and all school enrollment staff, secretaries, counselors, principals, school security staff, attendance officers, and teachers on the definition, rights, and needs of unaccompanied youth.
  • Coordinate with youth-serving agencies, such as shelters, soup kitchens, drop-in centers, street outreach, child welfare, juvenile courts, law enforcement, legal aid, teen parent programs, public assistance, gay/lesbian/bisexual/transgender youth organizations, mental health agencies…
unaccompanied youth strategies cont
Unaccompanied Youth—Strategies (cont.)
  • Offer youth an adult and peer mentor.
  • Establish systems to monitor youth’s attendance and performance, and let youth know you’ll be checking up on them.
  • Help youth participate fully in school (clubs, sports, homework help, etc.)
  • Build trust! Be patient, and ensure discretion and confidentiality when working with youth.
school enrollment resources
Immediate enrollment without documents:


Immediate enrollment without parent/guardian:


Immediate enrollment without immunizations:


School Enrollment Resources
school enrollment resources cont
Full participation in school activities:


Ensuring credit accrual and recovery:


School EnrollmentResources (cont.)
resolution of disputes key provisions
Resolution of Disputes—Key Provisions
  • Every state must establish procedures.
  • When a dispute over enrollment arises, the student must be admitted immediately to the school of choice while the dispute is being resolved.
  • The parent or guardian must be provided with a written explanation of the school’s decision, including the right to appeal.
  • The school must refer the child, youth, parent, or guardian to the liaison to carry out the dispute resolution process as expeditiously as possible.
scenario 2 stephanie1
Scenario 2: Stephanie
  • Stephanie, age 15, tried to enroll in one of your high schools. She said she ran away from home because she “could not get along with” her stepfather. A family in your district is letting Stephanie stay on a sleeper sofa in the living room, but they do not want to get involved in her education.
  • You are the campus homeless liaison at the high school. Stephanie has provided information about her prior school and class schedule. She does not want to provide her mother’s contact information, vaguely saying “it’s not important” and “I’m on my own now.”
  • Is Stephanie eligible for McKinney-Vento services?
  • Can Stephanie enroll in the new high school?
  • How can the school enroll her without a parent/guardian and without school records?
  • Does the new school need to find Stephanie’s mother or report Stephanie to some authority?
scenario 3 rochelle and matthew
Scenario 3: Rochelle and Matthew
  • Early childhood programs
impacts of homelessness on young children
Impacts of Homelessness on Young Children
  • Higher rates of developmental delays:
    • Infants who are homeless start life needing special care four times more often than other babies.
    • Homeless toddlers show significantly slower development than other children
  • Higher rates of chronic and acute health problems.
  • Higher exposure to domestic and other types of violence.
mckinney vento preschool provisions
McKinney-Vento Preschool Provisions
  • Liaisons must ensure that families and children have access to Head Start, Even Start, and other public preschool programs administered by the LEA.
  • State McKinney-Vento plans must describe procedures that ensure that homeless children have access to public preschool programs.
head start
Head Start
  • Head Start is a federally-funded comprehensive service delivery program for low-income/at-risk families and children with disabilities
  • Head Start provides services to children and families in the following areas:
      • Health and Nutrition (including Mental Health and Dental Services)
      • Education
      • Family Support
      • Disabilities
head start findings
Head Start Findings

Compared to non-homeless children served by Head Start (1999 HS demonstration programs), homeless children have:

  • Greater developmental delays (language)
  • More learning disabilities
  • More health and mental health problems
  • Higher frequency of withdrawal, shyness, separation anxiety, short attention disorder, flat affect, aggression, hoarding, anxiety in response to changes in environment or staff absences, concern over getting enough food, and sharing toys
head start provisions
Head Start Provisions
  • Homeless children are categorically eligible for Head Start programs.
  • Head Start programs are required to identify and prioritize homeless children for enrollment; allow homeless children to enroll while required paperwork is obtained; and coordinate with LEA liaisons.
  • OHS Information: http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov
strategies for accessing early childhood services
Strategies for Accessing Early Childhood Services
  • Identify the existing early childhood programs within your district: classrooms for birth to 5 year olds; preschool special education programs; other federally funded projects and community/district collaborations.
  • Connect with key public early childhood and elementary school staff to build relationships, share data, and create awareness of the impact of homelessness on young children to work toward future partnerships.
  • Advocate for slots for homeless children within those existing preschool programs.
strategies for accessing early childhood services cont
Strategies for AccessingEarly Childhood Services (cont.)
  • Include homelessness in the list of criteria for priority enrollment, classify homelessness as an “at risk” factor, and/or include homelessness specifically as a criterion for "most in need.”
  • Designate a “homeless contact” at each Head Start and preschool program in your community; make sure each contact is trained and hold regular meetings.
  • Designate a “young child” contact at each homeless service program; ensure that this contact is knowledgeable about Head Start, preschool, child development, etc.
  • Explore funding support from Title I, Part A, and grants sources such as United Way.
scenario 3 rochelle matthew
Scenario 3: Rochelle & Matthew
  • Tim arrived at your local elementary school yesterday to enroll his son in second grade. The registrar immediately recognized his address as that of a low-cost motel. Following your district procedure, she enrolled Tim’s son immediately, gave Tim a brochure on the McKinney-Vento Act, and asked if he had any preschool-age children at home.
  • Tim said that he had a 4-year old daughter, Rochelle, and a 2-year old son, Matthew. He shared that he has recently been given his children by Child Protective Services, has none of their records, and feels overwhelmed.
rochelle matthew
Rochelle & Matthew
  • What early childhood programs might be available for Rochelle?
  • What early childhood programs might be available for Matthew?
scenario 4 sofia
Scenario 4: Sofia
  • Sofia is 17 years old and on her own, supporting herself through various part-time jobs and rotating among different friends’ homes. She has attended your school for three years, and she’s now a senior. As Sofia looks toward college, she has several concerns. She’s worried about her readiness for the academic demands of college, particularly in math and science. She’s also asked you for help getting college application fees waived, completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), getting on SNAP (food stamps), and finding a permanent place to stay.
  • How can we help Sofia with college readiness, college applications and financial aid?
  • How can we help Sofia with basic needs like food and shelter?
college readiness for sofia title i and homelessness
College Readiness for Sofia:Title I and Homelessness
  • A child or youth who is homeless is automatically eligible for Title IA services, regardless of whether his or her school is a Title IA school.
  • LEAs must reserve (or set aside) the funds necessary to serve homeless children who do not attend Title IA schools, including educationally related support services.
    • Funds may be used for children attending any school in the LEA.
strategies for determining the title ia set aside amount
Strategies for Determining the Title IA Set-Aside Amount
  • Review needs and costs involved in serving homeless students in the current year and project for the following year.
  • Multiply the number of homeless students by the Title IA per pupil allocation.
  • For districts with subgrants, reserve an amount greater than or equal to the McKinney-Vento subgrant funding request.
  • Reserve a percentage based on the district’s poverty level or total Title IA allocation.
used guidance on using title ia funds for homeless students
USED Guidance on Using Title IA Funds for Homeless Students

Title I funds may be used for services not ordinarily provided to other Title I students.

Services must be reasonable and necessary to enable homeless students to take advantage of educational opportunities.

Funds must be used as a last resort when services are not reasonably available from another public or private source.

An individual paid in whole or in part with Title IA funds may also serve as a homeless liaison.

used guidance cont
USED Guidance (cont.)

Examples of Uses of Title IA funds:

Items of clothing, particularly if necessary to meet a school’s dress or uniform requirement

Clothing and shoes necessary to participate in physical education classes

Student fees that are necessary to participate in the general education program

Personal school supplies such as backpacks and notebooks

Birth certificates necessary to enroll in school



used guidance cont1
USED Guidance (cont.)

Uses of Title IA funds (cont.):

Medical and dental services

Eyeglasses and hearing aids

Counseling services

Outreach services

Extended learning time

Tutoring services

Parental involvement

Fees for AP and IB testing

Fees for SAT/ACT testing

GED testing for school-age students

title i part a resources
Title I Part A Resources



can sofia s college application fees be waived
Can Sofia’s college application fees be waived?
  • Yes, at the discretion of each individual college.
  • If she gets her SAT fee waived, she can receive up to 4 “Request for Waiver of College Admission Fee” forms.
    • Do not guarantee waiver, but may facilitate
    • http://sat.collegeboard.org/register/sat-fee-waivers
    • http://www.act.org/aap/pdf/feewaiver.pdf
how can the liaison help facilitate college application fee waivers
How can the Liaison help facilitate college application fee waivers?
  • Provide Sofia a letter on district letterhead explaining the McKinney-Vento Act, Sofia’s eligibility, and her situation.
    • This information can be shared without parental consent, under the financial aid exception to FERPA.
  • Establish relationships with Admissions Officers and Financial Aid Administrators (FAAs) at local colleges and universities.
unaccompanied youth and higher education the fafsa
Unaccompanied Youth andHigher Education: The FAFSA
  • Youth who meet the definition of “independent student” can complete the FAFSA without parental income information or signature.
  • Unaccompanied youth are automatically considered independent students.
    • Must be verified as unaccompanied and homeless during the school year in which the application is submitted.
  • Youth who are unaccompanied, at risk of homelessness, and self-supporting are also automatically considered independent students.
    • Must be verified as such during the school year in which the application is submitted.
fafsa cont
FAFSA (cont.)
  • Verification must be made by:
    • a McKinney-Vento Act school district liaison,
    • a HUD homeless assistance program director or their designee,
    • a Runaway and Homeless Youth Act program director or their designee, or
    • a financial aid administrator.
  • Youth who have been in foster care at any time after age 13 are also automatically independent.
  • More information and sample letters are available at: http://www.naehcy.org/higher_ed.html
helping with food
Helping with food
  • Homeless students are automatically eligible for free school meals.
  • USDA policy permits liaisons and shelter directors to obtain free school meals for students immediately by providing a list of names of students experiencing homelessness with effective dates.
  • http://www.naehcy.org/guidance.html
  • http://center.serve.org/nche/downloads/briefs/nutrition.pdf
can sofia apply for snap food stamps on her own
Can Sofia apply forSNAP (food stamps) on her own?
  • Yes. There is no age minimum for food benefits; No parent signature is required; and food benefits cannot be denied due to lack of address or photo ID.
  • Eligibility is based on the “household”.
  • If Sofia purchases her own food and prepares her own meals, she is her own household.
can sofia apply for snap as part of one of the families where she s staying
Can Sofia apply for SNAP as part of one of the families where she’s staying?
  • If Sofia and the family purchase and prepare food together, Sofia can be added to their household application.
  • It’s important for Sofia and the family(s) to talk about food stamps and how Sofia’s application could affect the household.
what information would help sofia decide how to apply for snap
What information would help Sofia decide how to apply for SNAP?
  • Does she purchase and prepare food alone or as part of a family?
  • How often does she stay with the family?
  • Is the family already receiving SNAP?
  • Considering her income and the size of the family, how would Sofia’s participation affect their benefit?
  • Does she move enough that she should apply on her own?
what are some housing ideas for sofia
What are some housing ideas for Sofia?
  • Stabilize one of her host families
  • Stabilize her employment
    • Offer her school credit for work
    • Can school get her a bus pass to help with transportation?
  • Get her on SNAP
  • Housing programs for foster youth
    • Was she ever in care?
    • Does she have an open case with child welfare?
    • Can child welfare or other programs for current/former foster youth be convinced to provide services?
what are some housing ideas for sofia cont
What are some housing ideas for Sofia? (cont.)
  • Transitional housing programs for youth
  • Rent an apartment
  • College dorms
    • Request a dorm that stays open year-round
    • Apply to be resident advisor / dorm monitor
  • College work-study
  • Housing + High School = Success
    • www.naehcy.org/housingyouth
general resources
General Resources

National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth


National Center on Homeless Education


National Network for Youth


DVDs for awareness-raising

  • http://www.hearus.us
  • “The McKinney-Vento Act in Our Schools”: pjulianelle@naehcy.org
  • “Real Students, Real Schools”: naehcy.org/videos
unaccompanied youth resources
Unaccompanied Youth Resources
  • http://naehcy.org/tk/tk.html
  • http://naehcy.org/higher_ed.html
  • http://naehcy.org/letendre_ab.html
  • http://center.serve.org/nche/ibt/sc_youth.php
  • http://www.1800runaway.org/
  • http://www.youtube.com/user/itgetsbetterproject
  • http://www.thetrevorproject.org/
unaccompanied youth statistics
Unaccompanied Youth Statistics

Toro, P., Dworsky, A. and Fowler, P. (2007). “Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches.” Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research.

Benoit-Bryan, J. (2011). The Runaway Youth Longitudinal Study.

The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and the National Coalition for the Homeless (2007). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness.

Hammer, H., Finkelhor, D., & Sedlak, A. (2002). “Runaway / Thrownaway Children: National Estimates and Characteristics.” National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children.

Greene, J. (1995). “Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences: Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors.” Research Triangle Institute.

young children resources
Young Children Resources
  • http://www.naehcy.org/early.html
  • http://www.horizonsforhomelesschildren.org
  • http://www.familyhomelessness.org
contact information
Contact Information

Barbara Duffield, Policy Director


Phone: 202.364.7392

Email: bduffield@naehcy.org

Patricia Julianelle, Legal Director


Phone: 202.436.9087

Email: pjulianelle@naehcy.org