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Writing Lesson Plans using the Backward Design Template

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  1. Writing Lesson Plans using the Backward Design Template Special Education Clinical 300/530 Liz Pearce Start Module

  2. Instructions • This module is to help you write a lesson plan using the special education clinical template. • For this module you will read the PowerPoint slides and follow the hyperlinks to gather more information. You will also be asked to complete a lesson plan as the module goes along. Please save a copy of the Lesson Plan Template to your computer and enter the information when prompted. Bring your completed lesson plan to class on the date listed in your syllabus. • If you click on a hyperlink and it asks you to open a file, you will find the file on the bottom taskbar- just click on the Windows key to view. Continue

  3. Lesson Plan Template • The lesson plan template you will use is based on the Backwards Design method of planning created by Wiggins and McTighe in their 2001 book, Understanding by Design. • This Lesson Plan has three stages: • Desired Results • Assessment Evidence • Learning Plan This module will examine all three stages and allow you the opportunity to create a mock lesson plan using this framework. Please click on the continue button when ready to proceed. Continue

  4. Stage 1: Desired Results What goals and objectives do you have for the lesson? In other words, what should your students walk away with once the lesson is over? First you need to consider the Illinois State Learning Standards. Which are pertinent to the subject you are teaching? Click on the hyperlink above to learn more. Second, What essential questions do you want to use as a overarching theme for the lesson? Click on the hyperlink above to learn more. Finally, what goals and objectives do you have for the students’ learning? Click on the hyperlinks above to learn more. Continue

  5. Practice Let’s pretend your clinical takes place in a 5thgrade classroom. Your cooperating teacher has asked you to teach a 50 minute Language Arts lesson using TheDiary ofAnne Frank. Do you have enough information to plan the lesson or do you need to have more discussion with your cooperating teacher? Click on your answer: Start planning Talk to Cooperating Teacher

  6. Discussion with cooperating teacher • Your cooperating teacher will help guide you with your lesson. Some topics to discuss right now with the teacher: • Standards that should be addressed • Students’ prior knowledge • Has the teacher introduced the Holocaust? WWII? • Are you introducing the book or is your lesson continuing one from the day before? • Lesson Purpose (knowing the purpose(s) will lead you to essential questions, goals and objectives) • To teach historical context • To teach moral themes such as prejudice • To work on vocabulary • To teach about first person narrative • To illustrate one way of writing • To build skills in reading comprehension • Students’ • learning styles • academic abilities • cognitive levels • social skills Continue

  7. Start Planning • You chose start planning. If so, do you know the learning styles, academic abilities, cognitive levels, and social skills of the students? • Do you know where you are starting? Do the students have prior knowledge? • How about the purpose for reading Anne Frank? Is it for the historical context? To teach moral themes such as prejudice? To work on vocabulary? To teach about first person narrative? To illustrate one way of writing? To build skills in reading comprehension…… • You will probably need to have a further discussion with the cooperating teacher in order to create a meaningful lesson that meets the needs of the students. Discuss with cooperating teacher

  8. After Discussion • You had a good discussion with your cooperating teacher. Your questions may have even led the teacher to think more closely about the lesson. Now it’s time to start writing stage one of the lesson plan. • Notes from meeting with cooperating teacher: • Standards: LA and SS • Prior Knowledge: Students are learning about the Holocaust in Social Studies, so the Language Arts class is continuing the theme. You will be introducing the book. • Purpose(s): Reading comprehension is an important part of the class because ISATS are approaching. There has also been bullying going on in the 5th grade so the teachers thought that Anne Frank might give the students a perspective into how bullying can lead to genocide. • Students: 10 students, 6 girls & 4 boys, all have a specific learning disability in the area of reading. 7 in the sub area of comprehension with 3 in the sub area of fluency. They generally like to work in groups and are comfortable with one another. 2 of the boys have to be constantly reminded to start working but the rest generally are willing to do their work. IQs are average to high average. One student is Jewish. One girl has non-medicated ADHD and needs ongoing redirection. Continue

  9. Stage 1Desired Results: Your Turn • Now it’s time for you to plan stage one in your lesson plan. Open the Lesson Plan template and: • Based on the information you have, list the standards you will use (write out complete standard, don’t just list the number) • Write 2 essential questions • Write 2-3 goals • Write 2-3 objectives • When done, click on continue. Continue

  10. Stage 2: Assessment Evidence Now that you have determined what the students should know and be able to do at the end of the lesson, you need to design assessments to measure their progress towards the goals and objectives. There are three assessment components that should be present in a unit: Pre-assessment, formative assessment and summative assessment. Continue

  11. Pre-Assessment • Pre-assessments are quick assessments used to inform teaching. They show the teacher what prior knowledge and skills the students bring to the lesson and this helps the teacher to know where to start the lesson. These assessments are for learning, not of learning and therefore should not be used as a graded assignment. Please click on this link for examples of pre-assessments: • http://www.saskschools.ca/curr_content/constructivism/how/preassessment.html Continue

  12. Pre-assessment: Your Turn Look at stage 1 of your lesson plan. Think about the outcome of the lesson. Write one pre-assessment that assesses the students’ prior knowledge and if needed, one that measures students’ skills. Think about what tool to use- Here are some more ideas for pre-assessments: Teacher prepared pretestsKWL charts and other graphic organizersWriting prompts/samplesQuestioningGuess BoxPicture InterpretationPredictionTeacher observation/checklistsStudent demonstrations and discussionsInitiating activities Informational surveys/Questionnaires/InventoriesStudent interviewsStudent products and work samplesSelf-evaluationsPortfolio analysisGame activitiesShow of hands to determine understanding: Every Pupil ResponseDrawing related to topic or contentStandardized test informationAnticipation journals Now remember you need to keep data. If your cooperating teacher asks you why your lesson started at a certain point or why you are pre-teaching a certain skill or concept before starting the lesson do you have data to show the teacher? Oral recollection is not the answer! Continue

  13. Formative Assessments • Formative assessments are also assessments for learning that are used during the instruction to inform both the teacher and the students. Feedback is essential for these assessments so that students know how they are doing. These assessments also inform the teacher about: • Concepts, skills that may need to be re-taught, • knowledge, understandings or misconceptions students are gaining from the lessons • Please read section on formative assessment at this link: http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspx Continue

  14. Formative Assessment: Your Turn • Look back at stage 1 of your lesson plan. Think about the outcome of the lesson. Write two formative assessments for each goal. Remember these must align with your standards and objectives. Also, remember to write down any adaptations you may need to make for your specific learners. • Visit this website for some ideas of tools you can use: • http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/file/view/03++Formative+Assessment+Strategies.pdf • Remember you will need to keep data! Continue

  15. Summative Assessment • Your lesson plan may or may not have a summative assessment. Summative assessments are assessments of learning. They are typically given at the end of a unit and show the body of knowledge or skills the student has learned. • Performance assessments are more authentic and allow the child to display a deeper understanding of skills and concepts than pencil/paper assessments. • Please scroll down and read the information at this link about Step 2: summative assessment: http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/academics.cfm?subpage=1276 Continue

  16. Summative Assessment: Your Turn • Look back at stage 1 of your lesson plan. If you were to continue teaching this book, think about the essential questions and the final outcomes/enduring understandings you would like the students to end up with when the unit is complete. Write one summative assessment. This assessment must align with your standards and essential questions. • Visit this website for some ideas of tools you can use: http://www.wcsu46.org/lg/images/App-C-ChartFormativeSummAssessment.pdf • Remember it must be measurable and you must create a rubric if needed! Continue

  17. Stage 3: Learning Plan • Now that you know what the students’ learning outcomes should be and how you will assess them, it’s time to plan the rest of the instruction. We’ll take this step by step. Look at the template- we start the learning plan with an introduction which includes the rationale and a hook/anticipatory set to grab the students’ attention. Think about these questions: • How will you introduce the objectives? • How will you engage the students and keep them motivated? • How can you tie this lesson to their lives? • Why is this lesson important for your students? Continue

  18. Learning Plan Introduction: Your Turn • In your template, write down how you will introduce the objectives and engage the students in the lesson. • This should only take a small amount of lesson time (5-10 minutes). Think creatively to hook the students but try to align your hook with the essential questions. Continue

  19. Learning Plan Bloom’s Taxonomy: Your Turn • Now it’s time to plan the activities. First, think about the 6 levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy (I’ve listed the old/new versions): • Knowledge/Remembering • Comprehension/Understanding • Application/Applying • Analysis/Analyzing • Synthesis/Evaluating • Evaluation/Creating Use the verbs attached to each level (for example: KNOWLEDGE-define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce state) to create activities. You should find that if you look at your formative assessments, they will fit with the taxonomy levels. Need a refresher on Bloom’s Taxonomy or the verbs that go with each level? Click here: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm Your activities should include all levels of the taxonomy and you should formulate questions for each level to ask your students. Remember, an activity can and should include more than one level- you do not need 6 different activities. The 10 students in our sample 5th grade class are of average or high average intelligence and all are verbal so it is appropriate to include all levels. If you were creating a lesson plan for students with very low cognitive abilities then it may be more appropriate to not include all levels. Continue

  20. Learning Plan Instruction: Your Turn • Next, under “Instruction” in the template, script out your role and the students’ role during the lesson. Describe this in detail so that if someone else had to teach your lesson they could just pick up this plan and go. • For an example, look at pages 1-3 at this website to see what a scripted lesson looks like: http://www.dsalowcountry.org/buddywalk/GradeK-2%202008%20Buddy%20Walk%20Education%20Program.pdf • Explain how the activities incorporate Multiple Intelligences and a variety of instructional elements and methodologies. Continue

  21. Learning Plan Differentiated Instruction • The best way to meet the needs of all learners in the classroom is to use differentiated instruction. There are three areas of the curriculum that can be differentiated: • Content: (What will be learned/taught) • Process: (How content will be learned/taught) • Product: (Assessment of content) Visit these websites for a deeper understanding: http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.html http://www.dayonepublishing.com/Educational/DifferentiationCard/DiffCard.pdf Continue

  22. Learning Plan Differentiated Instruction: Your Turn • One way to differentiate the process is through flexible grouping. In the template you will see a section for flexible grouping. Read the information on this website about flexible grouping and determine how and when you will group your students to maximize their learning. • http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html Continue

  23. Learning Plan Differentiated Instruction: Your Turn On the template you will find a differentiation grid. Think of how you could differentiate the content, process and product of your lesson. What would you change for each of these categories of learners so that they can access the curriculum? Even though your sample class, and your clinical setting may not have all of these learners, stretch and try to determine what each population listed in the grid would need, know that what works for one group may also work for another. Fill in the grid. Continue

  24. Learning Plan Materials & Resources: Your Turn • Now look back on your lesson and in this section list all the materials and resources necessary for your lesson. Remember to list technology if needed, resources you used, materials you will need for the assessments and activities. Continue

  25. Expansions/Connections/Modifications/Reflection • You’re in the home stretch. In this section you will expand your lesson. • Technology Application/Assistive Technology: • Do any learners need technology? If so, list what’s needed. • Literature Connection: • What other literature could expand/support this lesson? • Find at least one fiction or non-fiction book that is appropriate for the learners and the lesson. • Applications/Extensions: • How does this connect/apply to other content areas and the real world? • How could this lesson be expanded in these areas? • Reflection: • This is only filled in if the lesson is taught. If taught, you would critically reflect on what worked, what didn’t and what you would do differently if you had the chance to teach it over. Fill in these template components and voila! You’re finished! Remember to print and bring your lesson plan to class.