Patricia McGee, PhD and Veronica Diaz, PhD Making the Shift: From Classroom to Online Course Design: Session 2
Introduction Chunking course content • Utilizing instructional design techniques used to organize content • Storyboarding 2a.Linear Model vs. Hypertext Model 2b. Lesson construction
1. UTILIZING INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES USED TO ORGANIZE CONTENT
IGNITE Model of Online Course Design (Tompkins, 2007)
What is chunking? 1. Grouping content so that working memory (taking in what is new) is not overloaded
What is chunking? 1. Grouping content so that working memory (taking in what is new) is not overloaded 2. Limiting content so that connections can be made to schematic structures of long term memory (what is already known)
Metaphor: Dance steps A dance is made up of a series of steps. When learning a dance, dancers first learn a ‘chunk of steps, typically correlating to music (8 beats). Once learned, each set of steps becomes one “chunk” or more complex step. When steps are combined into a dance – with practice- the entire dance becomes one ‘chunk.’
CHAT How are classroom courses typically “chunked”?
What can be chunked online? • Course Content – what is being learned • Objectives • Concepts, facts, generalizations, principles, etc. • Processes • Problems
What else can be chunked online? 2. Course Organization • Course Resources • Course Processes: Activities - Assignments – Assessments • Course Layout (see course map handout) • Course Schedule • Course Materials • Text • Presentations • Discussions • Lecture Notes
3. Course Resources What more can be chunked online?
Example: Module Chunking Template • Dates: January 13 Through February 10 • Objective: To identify historical technology trends in education, cite supporting evidence of such trends, and explain their significance. • Print Readings: • Reiser, Chapters 1-3 Reading Log Questions • Burbules, Chapter 1 Reading Log Questions • Activities/Assignments: • Task 1 completed by February 10-17 (about 3 hours) • Required Class Chat on January 21 or 22 at 6 PM (1 hour) • Task 2 completed by February 3 (about 4 hours) • Task 3 completed by February 10-17 (about 8 hours total) • Required Class Chat on February 10 or 11 (1 hour) UNDERLINE denotes link to course resource
Example: “Assignment” Chunking BENCHMARK
Activity Chunking can differ across disciplines with a focus on: • Foundational concepts • Procedures • Problem solving • Applied skills What will differ across disciplines? Levels of education (undergraduate, graduate)?
Time: How much? 1 chunk = 15-20 minutes • 3 chunks = 1 lesson • 3 lessons = 1 unit • 3 units = 1 module • 5 modules = entire course NetNet
Intervals? • Time needed to process new information • Time needed to prepare processed information • Time needed to respond (synchronous events) Recommendation: Provide time estimates for assignments and asynchronous activities.
Example Intervals Principle Application Read (2 hours), watch (20 min., discuss (1 hour chat) the chapter on social conflict (over 3 days) Create a Voicethread™ that illustrates your position on the causes of and solutions for social conflict (1 week) In chat, count to 10 before responding • Time is needed to process new information • Time is needed to prepare processed information • Time is needed to respond (synchronous events)
Key Points for Chunking • Keep the learner in the forefront • Use time frameworks • Use consistent chunking strategies • Relate objectives and interactivity to chunks • Relate activities- assignments-assessments (Gobet, 2005)
ActivityChunk a Lesson Take 5 minutes Using your module that you drafted for Session 1, select one part that might be considered a lesson. Determine: • What is focus of ‘lesson’ – objective? Topic? Question? Other? • How much time is needed? • What resources are needed? • What activity, if any, will learners or instructor perform? • What media is needed?
Poll Do you storyboard your courses? • Yes • No
Why storyboard? • Plan the connection between course “chunks” • Troubleshoot gaps • Check for even distribution of content • Maps connections between different parts of the course (e.g., tools, activities, assignments, events, etc.).
Linear Model 1 2 3 4 5
Non-linear (Dynamic Environment) Making connections of parts to the whole Simple Obvious connections New learning, little reliance on learner to organize Linear (Static Environment) Instructor-directed Learner-directed
Non-linear (Dynamic Environment) Evaluate Decide Create Understand Analyze Memorization Linear (Static Environment) Instructor-directed Learner-directed
ACTIVITY • Review the following course. http://freshmancomp.ning.com/ (Password protected, only home page is viewable) • What is clear or confusing? • Post responses in chat.
Why is layout critical? Individual differences principle Design effects are stronger for low-knowledge learners than for high-knowledge learners. Design effects are stronger for high-spatial learners than for low-spatial learners. Richard E. Mayer
Visual Organization & Cues • Segmenting principle: People learn better when a multimedia lesson is presented in learner-paced segments rather than as a continuous unit. • Application: Limit number of ‘screens’ so that learner can directly relate to topic or task at hand. • Signaling principle: People learn better when the words include cues about the organization of the presentation. • Application: Use headings, icons, or visual dividers to draw attention to key areas.
MODULE 3 OBJECTIVES: …………..
Visual Organization & Cues • Coherence principle: People learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included. • Application: Keep it simple – images, sounds, text, color should direct and inform, not distract. • Pre-training principle: People learn better from a multimedia lesson when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts. • Application: Provide read access to a glossary, pop-ups, FAQ, image database, references, etc.
Assignment #5 • Listen to (.wav) or Read (.pdf) Instructions • Participate in Discussion #5 • Post your research to ++++ by Wednesday
Key Points for Storyboarding • Keep the learner in the forefront • Keep visual layout consistent • Select appropriate format for content and developmental level of learner
Homework, Part 1 • Take the module you began earlier. • Download Handout on Course Site. • Chunk the module into: • Lessons with • Activities • Assignments • Assessments • Post document to Course Site
Homework, Part 2 • Explore eLearning tools. http://elearningtools.wetpaint.com/ • What tools are a good fit for you? • What instructional application is missing? • These tools will be discussed in Session 2.