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  1. AFRICAN STUDIESDEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SILVANA CORRES ZENTENO

  2. GENERAL DATA Oficial Name: Democratic Republic of the Congo / RepubliqueDemocratique du Congo Location: African Great Lakes region of Central Africa Frontiers: Angola, Zambia, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Atlantic Ocean Capital: Kinshasa Currency: CongoleseFranc Nationality: Congolese Independence: 30 June 1960 Member of UN: 20September 1960 CIA Factbook 2011

  3. Area: 2,344,858 sq km / 1,964,375 sq km Country comparison to the world: 11 / 14 CIA Factbook, 2013

  4. Population: 77,433,744 / 120,286,655 Country comparison to the world: 20 / 12 CIA Factbook, 2013

  5. Lifeexpectancy at birth total population: 56.54 years / 75.43 Country comparison to the world: 203/ 94 Infant mortality rate total: 73.15 deaths/1,000 live births Country comparison to the world: 12 Literacy percent: 66% HDI: 0.304 Country comparison to the world: 186 Almost 50% of Congolese citizens are under 15 years old Global growing casebook, 2012 UNDP Data, 2012

  6. Urban population: 34.3% of total population (2011) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 481,500 (2012 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17 CIA Factbook, 2011

  7. Languages: French (official) Fournationallanguages: Lingala Swahili Kikongo Tshiluba Regional languages: 212 Ethnicgroups: over 200 Majority:Bantu Provinces: Bandundu Bas-Congo Equateur Kasai-Occidental Kasai-Oriental Katanga Maniema Nord-Kivu Orientale and Sud-Kivu SouthernAfricanDevelopmentCommunity (SADC), 2012

  8. SouthernAfricanDevelopmentCommunity (SADC), 2012

  9. Natural resources: Cobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber Land use: Arable land: 2.9% Permanentcrops: 0.32% CIA Factbook, 2012

  10. Environment - current issues: Poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals CIA Factbook, 2012

  11. Main Economic Sectors AfricanEconomic Outlook 2012

  12. Agriculture - products: Coffee, sugar, palmoil, rubber, tea, cotton, cocoa, quinine, cassava (manioc), bananas, plantains, peanuts, rootcrops, corn, fruits; woodproducts Industries: Mining, textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes, metal products, processedfoods and beverages, timber, cement, commercialshiprepair CIA Factbook, 2013

  13. Labor force: • 35.18 million (2013 est.) • Country comparison to the world: 18 • Percentage of the population that works in agriculture: 60% Global growing casebook, 2012 CIA Factbook, 2011

  14. GDP:$29.39 billion / $1.845 trillion Country comparison to the world: 115/ 11 • GDP - per capita:$400/ $15,600 • Country comparison to the world: 228/88 Population below poverty line: 71% (2006 est.) CIA Factbook, 2013

  15. Exports: $9.936 billion (2013 est.) Country comparisontotheworld: 95 Exports-partners: China 54.3%, Zambia 22.6%, Belgium 5.7% (2012) Imports: $8.924 billion (2013 est.) Country comparisontotheworld: 106 Imports - partners: South Africa 22.3%, China 15.3%, Belgium 8%, Zambia 6.9%, Zimbabwe 5.6%, France 4.9%, Kenya 4.7% (2012) CIA Factbook, 2013

  16. History Independence: Far from being a triumph of African nationalism Colonization period King Leopold II: African International Association Direct Administration Belgian Government: 18 October 1908 No colonial doctrine “Belgian Congo”

  17. Joseph Kasavubu: Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO): Léopoldville Patrice Lumumba: Stanleyville: vision to create a unique and national party Conference of Accra 1958

  18. Kasavuvbu: bakongo Lumumba: tetela Kalonji: luba Tshombe: lunda Political struggle Regionalism vs. Centralism Joseph Kasavubu Regionalism Centralism MoiseTshombe (Katanga) Albert Kalonji Patrice Lumumba

  19. Beginning of Civil Strifes: “Congo Crisis”

  20. Influence of the “ModernizationTheory” in theThirdWorld Insurrections and resistance: “Secondindependence” Colonel Joseph-Desiré Mobutu : November 1965: CoupD’etat, in orderto USA interests: “Strongman of the Congo” Promise of peace and stabilitytothepopulation = better accommodation for the oligarchy Zaire Republic 1971-1997: Dictatorship of Mobutu = Mobutu SeseSeko = ““the all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest leaving fire in his wake.” Monopoly of thecopperindustry: nationalized the Union Minière Big investments in projectwithout real meaningfordevelopment 1977: invaders from Angola pushed into Shaba (Katanga) Foreignhelp (mainly USA) = social and economic crisis Deterioration of the living conditions of the people Extreme case of undevelopmentfor 2 reasons: • Thelarge gap betweenthe potencial development and thecurrentstate • The “Zaire Syndrome”: prevailingcorruption of thepoliticpower and thefailure of theinstitutions

  21. FIRST CONGO WAR (1996-1997)

  22. SECOND CONGO WAR/ GREAT WAR OF AFRICA (1998-2003)

  23. People in the east of the country remain in terror of militias and the army The war claimed an estimated 3.8 million lives: fighting /disease / malnutrition Many people became homeless / orphaned Mainly, fighting was fuelled by the country's vast mineral wealth

  24. CurrentGovernment Type of Government: Unitary State/ Republic Constitution promulgated on February 18, 2006 by President Joseph Kabila • Political pluralism • Congolese citizenship is exclusive. Double citizenship is therefore impossible in theory • Same sex marriage forbidden Cabinet = The Government Executive branch: President: Head of state: universal suffrage elections: five years: one reelection Prime Minister: head of government Legislative branch Bicameral Parliament: National Assembly and Senate Judiciary branch Independent: ruled by the Superior Council of the Judiciary P: Joseph Kabila PM: AugustinMatataPonyo

  25. Government TIMELINE Tshombe Katanga Independence (1963) Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgium (1908 – 1960) Kasavubu (1960–1965) Mobutu (1965-1997) Republic of Zaire Laurent Kabila (1997-2001) Lumumba Joseph Kabila (2001- in function)

  26. MAIN RECENT EVENTS IN DRC 44% of thepeoplesaytheyknowsomeonewho has been a childsoldier 45,000 people continue die each month in Congo, mostly from starvation and disease.

  27. BIBLIOGRAPHY • http://global-growing.org/sites/default/files/GG_Casebook.pdf • http://www.exteriores.gob.es/Documents/FichasPais/CONGOKINSHASA_FICHA%20PAIS.pdf • http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/drc/overview • http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/Congo%20Democratic%20Republic%20Full%20PDF%20Country%20Note.pdf • https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cg.html • https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html • http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13283212 • http://www.infoplease.com/country/democratic-republic-of-congo.html • http://travel.state.gov/content/passports/english/alertswarnings/democratic-republic-of-the-congo-travel-warning.html • http://www.un.int/wcm/content/site/congo • http://www.un.int/wcm/content/site/congo • http://www.fletcherforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Williams-37-2.pdf • http://www.economist.com/node/1213296 • http://www.globalissues.org/article/87/the-democratic-republic-of-congo • http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/dag/time1961.htm • http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/monuc/mandate.shtml • http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jul/02/democratic-republic-congo-rape-capital-conflict-sexual-violence • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8650112.stm • http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/06/09/drc-a-giant-in-the-making • http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2014/06/congo-switches-off-watch-world-cup-20146245617251998.html • http://www.sadc.int/member-states/dr-congo/