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Scientific Reasoning

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  1. Scientific Reasoning

  2. Inductive Reasoning • Inductive reasoning is when you use specific observationsOR examples to make conclusionsor rules.

  3. INDUCTIVE REASONING Observations Specific Examples Conclusion/Rule

  4. Inductive Reasoning • Example: • Observe/example: You scratch you cat’s belly and he bites you. You scratch your cat’s head and he bites you. You scratch the cat’s back and he purrs. • Conclusion/rule: Don’t scratch your cat’s belly or head

  5. Deductive Reasoning • Deductive reasoning is when you start with a conclusion or rule and then apply the idea to observations or examples.

  6. Deductive reasoning Conclusion/Rule Observations Specific Examples

  7. Deductive Reasoning • Example: • Conclusion/rule: Shapes with three sides are called triangles. • Observations/examples: This shape has 4 sides so it is not a triangle. This other shape has 3 sides so we call it a triangle

  8. 1. I see that turtles have shells. I see snails have shells. They must use shells for protection. _______ • 2. A puddle has frozen. The pond is frozen. It must be below 0 degrees outside. _______ • 3. Because of the law of gravity, I notice every time I toss something in the air, it falls down. _______ • 4. All dogs are mammals. Mammals have kidneys. Mammals have hearts. ___________

  9. My math teacher is a girl. My last math teacher was a girl. All math teachers must be girls. • An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Mr. Olson ate an apple every day. Dr. Drew stayed away. • Miss Jardine was bit by a dog. Miss Jardine is now scared of all dogs. • All speeders will get a ticket. Miss B. was speeding. She got a ticket.