Early African Societies and Bantu Migrations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Early African Societies and Bantu Migrations

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  1. Early African Societies and Bantu Migrations Ch. 3

  2. Early Agricultural Society in Africa

  3. Climatic change and the Development of Agriculture in Africa Early Sudanic Agriculture Climatic Change The Nile River Valley • Between the periods • Of 7500-6500 bce Sudanic • Agriculture became very • Diverse • Allowed for organization • Of small scale states • 5000bce formed small • Monarchies • Religious beliefs that • Reflected agricultural • society • After 5000bce • Profound climate change • Influencing social • Organization and • agriculture in the region • Hotter & drier • Desiccation • Cultivators/Herders • Move to remaining bodies • Of water (Lake Chad/Nile) • World’s longest • River • Flooded and • Receded • Creating rich • Fertile soil

  4. Egypt and Nubia: “Gifts of the Nile” Early Agriculture in the Nile Valley Political Organization • Nile links the Mediterranean basin • In the North & sub-Saharan Africa in • The South • Egypt & Nubia influenced by the 2 • Egypt & Nubia relied on agriculture • Egypt: cultivate late summer, harvest • In winter & early spring • Nubia: relied on prepared fields and • Irrigation • Egypt: becomes more intense in • Agriculture w/ prepared lands, dikes, • basins • Formal organization • Maintain order • Organize community • Projects • Power came from divine • Authority aka theocracy

  5. The Unification of Egypt Relations between Egypt & Nubia The Early Kingdom Of Kush Archaic Period & The Old Kingdom Menes • Frequent violence • During the Old • Kingdom • Egypt dominated • Lower Nubia (3100- • 2600bce) • Egyptian presence • Led to political • Organization in Upper • Nubia • Est. Kingdom of Kush • (2500bce) • Though tense w/Egypt • Alliances and diplomacy • Existed • Intermarriage • United Upper • And Lower • Egypt • Memphis was • The capital for • The unified Egypt • (cultural & political • Center) • Centralized state • Rule with a Pharaoh • Aka Egyptian king • (gods living on Earth) • Owner/absolute • Rulers of the land • Strong interests in • Each other • Political & commercial • Egypt:Felt threatened • By Nubian kingdoms • & wanted products (gold, • Ivory, ebony, & precious • Stones) • Nubia: protect • Independence from • Egypt, control trade down • The Nile • Pharaoh’s had • Great power • Massive pyramids • Ability to marshal • Resources • Khufu’s pyramid is • The largest • 80000 laborers

  6. Turmoil and Empire The Revived Kingdom of Kush Egyptian Imperialism The Hyskos New Kingdom • After Old • Kingdom declined • Hyskos (Horse • riding nomads) • invaded • Egypt • Introduce the • Horse drawn chariot • Use of bronze for • Weapons and bows • Upper Egypt • Organized revolts • Using Hyskos weaponry • Drove Hyskos out • And founded the • New Kingdom • Wanted to extend • Egyptian authority • Seized threatening • Regions • Rulers of the New • Kingdom dominated • areas for protection • Power over: E. • Mediterranean basin, • SW Asia as well as • Nile river valley • Egypt driven out • From: Nubia & SW Asia • Egypt retreats from • Nubia • Est. a new kingdom • Of Kush and dominate • Egypt for a century • Egypt invaded from • Both sides by Kushites • And Assyrian army • Prosperous & • Productive • Agricultural • Surpluses • Army & • Bureaucracy • Divided • Responsibilities • (court, treasury, • Religious cults)

  7. The Formation of Complex Societies and Sophisticated Cultural Traditions

  8. The Emergence of Cities and Stratified Societies Patriarchal Society And Women’s Influence in Egypt & Nubia Cities of the Nile Valley: Egypt Cities of the Nile Valley: Nubia Social Classes • Patriarchal (public • And private affairs) • Upper elite woman • Looked over domestic • Servants • Common women did • Domestic work • Elite men: gov’t • Officials, scribes • Lower class men: • Agricultural laborers, • Potters, craftsmen • Men & Women can own • Property, slaves and pass • Wealth • Women influenced policy, • Manipulation • Nubia had female rulers • Peasants & • Slaves: hard labor • Pharaoh: supreme • Ruler • Central gov’t: • Military force, • Bureaucratic • Administrators & tax • Collectors • Nubia: Gov’t officials, • Priests, craftsmen, • Merchant, laborers • And slaves • Major cities • Emerge and • Guided affairs • Thebes played • A political center • For Egypt • Heliopolis-city • Of the sun & • Cultural center • Prominent cities • Include: Kerma, • Napata and Meroe. • Political and • Economically • flourishing

  9. Economic Specialization and Trade Bronze & Iron Metallurgy Transportation Trade Networks Maritime Trade: Egypt & Punt • Traded through • The Red Sea & • Gulf of Aden w/ • Punt • Asserted the • Importance of • Specialized labor • & transportation • efficiency • Slower to • Adopt metal tools • Appeared after • The Hyskos • Monitored supplies • Of bronze • Nubia produced • Little bronze • Instead of Bronze the • Use of Iron emerged. • Spread through most • Of Sub-Saharan Africa • The Nile • Sailed beyond the • Mediterranean • Used wheeled vehicles • Donkey caravan • Traveled up and down • Labor & • Transportation • Encouraged • Long distance • Trade • Areas of trade: • Nubia, Mesopotamia, • Aswan, Elephantine • Goods traded: • Ebony, ivory, gemstones, • Gold etc.

  10. Early Writing in the Nile Valley Hieroglyphic Writing Education Meroitic Writing • Pictographs • Influence by • Mesopotamia • “holy inscription” • Administrative • And commercial • Records • Literary & religious • Text • Formal writing & • Monument inscription • Hieratic script- writing • For everyday affairs • Other forms of writing • Used: demotic & Coptic • Formal education brought • Rewards • Nubians spoke both • Language • Egypt influenced both • Cultures • Traveled into Nubia • And built temples • Of Egyptian Gods • Nubian inscriptions • Borrowed from • Egyptian hieroglyphics • Sounds rather than • ideas

  11. The Development of Organized Religious Traditions Amon & Re and Aten & Monotheism Nubian Religious Beliefs Mummification Cult of Osiris • Deities played prominent • Roles in the world • Amon-sun, creation, • Fertility and reproductive • Forces (from Thebes) • Re-sun god (from Heliopolis) • Priest combined Amon-Re • Aten god adopted as the • Sole god by Pharaoh Amenhotep • IV • First early expression of • Monotheism • After Pharaoh died there • Was a counterattack on the • deity • Brother murdered • Him scattered • Body throughout • The land • Loyal wife retrieved • His body provided • A proper burial • Impressed gods • Restored Osiris back • To life • God of underworld • Associated with the • Nile • Who deserved • Immortality who didn’t • Not end but • Transition • Only ruling elites • Survive the grave • Mummified only • Pharaohs and • Family • Later available • To other normal • mortals • Apedemak- • Lion god, war • God • Sebiume- • Creator god & • Guardian of human • Devotees. • Egyptian religious • Cults prominent • Also built pyramids • Amon-preeminent • deity

  12. Bantu Migrations and Early Agricultural Societies Of Sub-Saharan African

  13. The Dynamics of Bantu Migrations Bantu Migrations The Bantu Iron & Migration • Sub-Saharan Africa • “persons” • Settled along rivers • Open areas of the forests • Navigated in canoes • Clan based villages, • Headed by chiefs • Traded regularly w/ • Hunting and gathering • peoples • Helped spread iron • Through Sub-Saharan • Africa • Aided in agriculture • And weaponry • Spread South to • West African forest • South toward Congo • Some settled others • Migrated creating new • Languages • Not mass movements • Intermittent • Occupied most of Africa • South of the Equator • Population pressures drove • Migrations • Canoes & agricultural aided • In migration

  14. Early Agricultural Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa Spread of Agriculture Religious Beliefs • Agricultural societies in Sub-Saharan • Africa • Built distinctive societies and • Cultural traditions • Age sets/age groups-responsibilities • Based on age • Monotheistic • single, impersonal divine force • That could take form as spirits • Responsible for rewards and • Punishments • Nyamba-deity-created the world • And principles that govern it, stepped • Back and allowed the world to proceed • Adapted beliefs from others