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Aim: What is Erosion?

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  1. Aim:What is Erosion? Objective: Ability to differentiate the different type of weathering Vocabulary: mechanical weathering, chemical weathering, carbonation, oxidation, hydrolysis Catalyst, sediment, glaciers

  2. Interactions of the Spheres

  3. Definition of Erosion • Process in which weathered pieces of the lithosphere are moved from on place to another • Occurs because of Weathering

  4. Weathering • Is the decay of rocks, minerals, mountains, and other hard surfaces of the earth • The decay breaks larger particles into smaller ones • The decay can either be mechanical or chemical or both

  5. Physical Weathering • Gravity • Running Water • Freeze-Thaw Cycle • Wind • Glacier

  6. What happens when two rocks bang into each other? • Little chips of the rocks break off • Sometimes large chips, sometimes small ones. • Multiply that by 1,000,000 years • Will the original rocks be larger or smaller • Mechanical Weathering

  7. Freeze-Thaw Cycle If you put a can of soda in the freezer what happens? The same things happens in nature when water freezes Over millions of years – changes the lithosphere breaking parts of it into millions of pieces

  8. Freeze Thaw

  9. Frost Wedging

  10. Freeze Thaw Cycle When the rock finally breaks up there, what causes it to fall ? gravity

  11. Man on the Mountain, NH

  12. This Process Created:

  13. What happens when water rushes down a mountain • Brings everything with it • Soil • Rocks • Now multiply that effect by 10,000,000 years

  14. How dramatic can the effect be? • Most of the sand deposits on the east coast are the weathered remains of granite mountains from … • Appalachian Mountains

  15. Running Water The faster the water runs, the larger the particles (sediment) the water is able to move !

  16. Running Water

  17. Running Water • Moves things “down-stream” • Created the Grand Canyon over 30,000,000 years • Literally washed mountains down valleys • And sometimes into the oceans • Creates new landforms

  18. Running Water

  19. Running Water Creates Deltas

  20. Running Water Creates Deltas Where did this whole landform come from?

  21. Abrasion

  22. Moving Water

  23. Plant Acids

  24. Glaciers • Extremely Vast Regions of Ice/Snow • Millions of Years Old • Continental (Greenland – Antarctica) • Mountain (Alpine) Glaciers

  25. Glaciers • Move rock and sediment in their path • When they retreat (melt), the carried remains are left behind • Formed Long Island – last Ice Age • Sometimes they form hill, and lakes • Drumlins and the Finger Lakes

  26. Chemical Weathering Chemical weathering is where the rock material is changed into another substance by reacting with a chemical. • Oxidation: • Hydrolysis:

  27. Oxidation is another form of chemical weathering • Your bicycle if made of iron • What happens to it in the rain • Turns to rust • Oxygen + Iron = Iron Oxide (rust) • Water is a catalyst = speeds up the process

  28. Weathering can also be chemical • Carbon dioxide (air) mixes with water (rain) to form carbonic acid • Carbonic acid can dissolve some sedimentary rocks – particularly limestone • Over millions of years this forms large caves and caverns. (Howe Caverns) • Often when water combines with limestone or marble an acid is formed

  29. Howe Caverns

  30. LimestoneCave

  31. Hydrolysis is another form of chemical weathering • Water has a tendency to dissolve other substances • Water is called the universal solvent • When water combines with another substance is called hydrolysis

  32. Rates of weathering will be influenced by surface area: More surface exposed, the faster the weathering will occur.

  33. 1. What type of steam carries more sediment? a)Fast moving b)Slow moving c)No correlation

  34. 2. What type of steam cause more erosion? a)Fast moving b)Slow moving c)No correlation

  35. 3. During a heavy rain, a stream probably moves a)Faster b)Slower c)No correlation

  36. 4. During a heavy rain, there is probably _______ erosion a)more b)less c)No correlation

  37. 5. During a hurricane, there is probably _______ erosion a)more b)less c)No correlation

  38. 6. There is more gravitational erosion on a ______ slope. a)Steep b)gentle c)No correlation

  39. 7. There is more erosion on a ______ flowing stream a)Steep sloping b)Gentle sloping c)No correlation

  40. 8. Freeze-Thaw reactions a)Create sediment b)Reverse seditment c)No correlation

  41. 9. How was Long Island created • Chemical Weathering • Erosion • Glaciers (glaciations)

  42. 10. Deltas are created from • Wave Action • Carried sediment from upstream • Glaciers