the age of confessional division 1550 1618 n.
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The Age of Confessional Division, 1550-1618. The West CHAPTER 14. The Population Recovery. Consistent population growth, after 1480 Permanent shift in demographic and economic power, from Mediterranean to northwest Europe

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the population recovery
The Population Recovery
  • Consistent population growth, after 1480
  • Permanent shift in demographic and economic power, from Mediterranean to northwest Europe
  • Shift from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture fueled population and economic growth
the prosperous villages
The Prosperous Villages
  • Decline of serfdom created relative economic freedom for peasantry
  • Successful commercial agriculture depended upon a free labor supply, access to capital, and proximity to markets
  • Growth of rural population created a new underclass of vagabonds
the regulated cities
The Regulated Cities
  • Cities grew, due to migration from country
  • Dramatic social and economic divisions grew
  • Increasing regulation of social and economic life by urban governments
  • Expansion of charity and welfare organizations
the price revolution
The Price Revolution
  • Population growth led to demand outstripping supply, especially for essentials
  • Prices multiplied by five- or six-fold
  • Real wages declined, and fixed incomes and government revenues were eroded
  • Influx of gold and silver from colonies and debasement of currencies encouraged inflation
establishing confessional identities
Establishing Confessional Identities
  • Promotion of distinct confessional institutions, beliefs, behaviors and cultures
  • Union between political and religious authorities - development of state religion
  • Clerical disciplining of non-conformity
  • Catholic ritual identity depended upon a repertoire of gestures
  • Protestant ritual identity depended upon a demonstration of sociability
policing the family
Policing the Family
  • The patriarchal ideal served the needs of church and state - the authority of a husband and father reflected that of king and clergy
  • Evolution of a new type of family - smaller, physically and economically independent
  • Development of new attitude towards children - greater emphasis on education, welfare and discipline
suppressing popular culture
Suppressing Popular Culture
  • Reformation or abolition of non-Christian practices in European culture
  • Active promotion of reformed religious practices and values
  • Broadening of the cultural gap between the élite and the broad mass of society
hunting witches
Hunting Witches
  • Intensification of persecution of alleged witches
  • The logic of witchcraft beliefs implied that a bad ending was caused by bad intentions
  • Belief in diabolism helped explain events that could not be understood
  • Ca. 100,000 people were accused of witchcraft and around half of them were executed
  • Ca. 80 percent of accused witches were women
the confessional states
The Confessional States
  • Fundamental principle of rulership - one king, one faith, one law
  • Presence of a significant religious minority in a state led to tension, suspicion and even civil war
  • Emergence of religious fanaticism fueled political assassinations and massacres
the french wars of religion and the dutch revolt
The French Wars of Religion and the Dutch Revolt
  • Conflicts bred from competition for political power, between religious rivals
  • Development of an international Protestant alliance between Dutch rebels, French Huguenots and the English
  • French instability allowed Spain to become the dominant power in Europe
  • Dutch Revolt strained the military and economic resources of Spain to breaking point
literature in the age of confessional division
Literature in the Age of Confessional Division
  • Vernacular languages replaced Latin as literary languages
  • Political and religious turmoil prompted questioning about humanity and the meaning of life
  • Remarkable period of literary creativity - Spanish Golden Age and Elizabethan Renaissance
the dream world of emperor rudolf
The Dream World of Emperor Rudolf
  • Pressure of maintaining the ideal of a universal empire, in the face of political and religious instability
  • Rudolf II (r.1576-1612) created a fantasy of unity at his court in Prague
  • Lack of firm control from the emperor exacerbated religious conflicts within the empire
the renaissance of poland lithuania
The Renaissance of Poland-Lithuania
  • Power of nobility had encouraged religious diversity
  • Cultural and commercial contacts with Italy enhanced the appeal of Catholicism
  • In the decentralized political system, the Catholic Church provided a unifying institution and culture
the development of imperial russia
The Development of Imperial Russia
  • Dukes of Moscow became the tsars of Russia, creating an authoritarian state
  • Imitation of Byzantine style and assertion of continuity with Imperial Rome
  • Ivan IV (1533-1584) weakened power of nobility and ruled through terror
  • Romanov dynasty, in 1613, founded after chaos of early seventeenth century
the divisions of the west
The Divisions of the West
  • Demographic and economic pressures eroded confidence and security
  • Emergence of confessional states, based upon a union of political and religious authority
  • Division of the West into religiously driven national camps
  • Development of political alliances, based upon common beliefs