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Chapter 12. Shaped by Its History. Section 1. Early Civilizations of Middle America. Mayan Civilizations. A.D. 300 - A.D. 900 Built great cities Copan - Honduras Tikal - Guatemala Used these cities as religious centers Food Maize - Corn, main food. Mayan Civilization. Science

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

Shaped by Its History

section 1

Section 1

Early Civilizations of Middle America

mayan civilizations
Mayan Civilizations
  • A.D. 300 - A.D. 900
  • Built great cities
    • Copan - Honduras
    • Tikal - Guatemala
    • Used these cities as religious centers
  • Food
    • Maize - Corn, main food
mayan civilization
Mayan Civilization
  • Science
    • Priests studied stars and planets
  • Mayan Calendar
    • Most accurate calendar until the 1700’s
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Numbering system
    • Decimals
    • “ZERO”
what happened to the mayas
What Happened to the Mayas?
  • A.D. 900 - suddenly left their cities
  • No one knows why??
  • Possibilities
    • Crop failures, War, Disease, Drought, Famine
    • Rebelled against leaders
  • Left cities, but stayed in region
    • Many still live in the same area
      • Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala
aztec civilization
Aztec Civilization
  • A.D. 1100
  • Central Mexico
  • Wandered for many years until deciding to build at Lake Texcoco
  • Turned swampy island into great city
    • Tenochtitlan
    • Present Day Mexico City
aztec empire
Aztec Empire
  • 1400’s - began conquering the other people in the region
  • Made them pay “tribute” - grew rich from it
    • Food, cotton, gold, slaves
  • Aztec Emperor ruled over all the land
  • Aztec society had several different classes
    • Many were lowest - farmers
aztec accomplishments
Aztec Accomplishments
  • Tenochtitlan was center of learning and trade.
  • Knowledge of medicine
  • Astronomers predicted eclipses
  • Also used Hieroglyphics to keep records
section 2

Section 2

The Incas:

People of the Sun

rise of the inca
Rise of the Inca
  • Cuzco
    • A.D.1200 - small village
    • Began acquiring land through wars and conquest
  • Pachacuti - leader
    • Demanded loyalty from conquered people
  • Empire - stretched 2500 miles throughout South America
incan accomplishments
Incan Accomplishments
  • Excellent Farmers and Builders
  • Roads
    • 14000 miles of roads
    • Road system helped Inca govern vast empire
incan accomplishments1
Incan Accomplishments
  • Aqueducts
    • A pipe or channel to carry water from a distant source
    • Allowed them to irrigate land that normally would have been too dry to farm
incan accomplishments2
Incan Accomplishments
  • Government
    • Emperor
      • Nobles - province
        • People - pay taxes (crops)
    • Gov’t took care of the sick
  • No written language
    • Quipus (kee poos)
      • Knotted strings, size of knot stood for numbers
incan accomplishments3
Incan Accomplishments
  • Religion
    • Like the Mayans and the Aztecs the Incas worshiped MANY gods
  • Inti - Sun God - “children of the sun”
  • Viracocha - God that created all the people of the Andes
where are they now
Where are they now??
  • Spanish conquered Incan empire in the 1500s.
  • Descendents still live in same area
    • Speak Quechua (check wah)
  • Incan Culture
    • Farming
    • Clothing - Poncho - brightly colored, complex patterns
section 3

Section 3

European Conquest

europeans in the americas
Europeans in the Americas
  • 1400s - Spain and Portugal searched for trade routes to Asia
  • Christopher Columbus - 1492
    • Thought he reached the East Indies in Asia
      • Called the natives “Indians”
dividing the world
Dividing the World
  • Spain and Portugal - tried to stop each other from claiming land in the Americas
  • 1494 - Treaty of Tordesillas
    • Set an imaginary line from the North Pole to the South Pole at 50 degrees longitude
    • Was called the Line of Demarcation - gave Spain the right to settle West of the line and Portugal the right to settle to the East of the line.
  • This is why the language and background of Brazil is Portuguese.
culture clash
Culture Clash
  • Conquistadors - conquerors that were treasure hunters.
    • Could settle America
    • Gave back to Spain 1/5th of any treasure they found.
cortes conquers the aztecs
Cortes conquers the Aztecs
  • 1519 - Cortes gets help from other tribes
  • Montezuma's spies thought that the Spanish were gods, Quetzalcoatl
  • Aztecs welcomed Cortes. Gave into Spanish rule.
  • Fighting broke out, many died
  • Aztec Empire was in ruins
pizarro conquers the incas
Pizarro conquers the Incas
  • 1531 - Plans to attack pacific coast of South America
  • Captured and killed Incan Emperor and many other Incan leaders.
  • By 1535 - conquered most of empire including capital Cuzco
how did they do it
How did they do it?
  • Conquistadors defeated the two most powerful empires in the Americas.
  • Took only 15 years
  • Guns, cannons, horses
  • Diseases wiped out whole villages
  • Some local natives helped the Spanish because of the rivalry between the tribes.
  • Spain divided its territory into provinces
  • Main ones- New Spain and Peru
  • Lima capital of Peru
    • Most powerful people lived in the center
    • Mestizos lived on outskirts
      • People of mixed Spanish and Native American descent.
    • Native Americans lived outside the city
      • Many worked on a Hacienda - a plantation owned by Spaniards or the Catholic Church
european rule
European Rule
  • Encomiendas - granted by Spain
    • Rights to demand taxes or labor from Native Americans
  • Native American Population
    • 1519 - New Spain -25 Million
    • Only 3 million survived the first 50 years of Spanish rule
    • 1532 - Peru - 12 million
      • After 50 years - less than 2 million
section 4

Section 4


mexican independence
Mexican Independence
  • People in Mexico watched other countries revolutions - a political movement in which people overthrow the government
    • 1770’s - American Colonies
    • 1789 - French Revolution
    • 1790’s - Haiti (France)
  • Criollos - had Spanish parents, born in Latin America
    • Few had any political power
    • Wanted to govern themselves
cry of dolores
“Cry of Dolores”
  • 1810 - Miguel Hidalgo - Criollo priest in town of Dolores.
    • Won some victories, but were soon retreating.
  • Was captured and killed by firing squad
  • Hidalgo started the revolution, started that way of thinking.
independence finally comes
Independence finally comes…
  • Small rebel groups kept fighting even after their leaders were executed.
  • Iturbide joins the rebels
    • High ranking criollo in Spanish Army.
  • Many people viewed Iturbide differently than Hidalgo
    • They began to suppoprt the rebellion
  • 1821 - Iturbide declared Mexico independent
south american independence
South American Independence
  • Simon Bolivar - born in Venezuela - joined the fight for independence in 1804.
  • By 1822 his troops freed much of the northern part of S.A. - Bolivar was its President.
  • Soon turned his attention south toward Peru.
s a independence
S.A. Independence
  • Jose de San Martin - Spanish Army, Argentina
  • 1817 - Took his soldiers over the Andes into Chile.
    • Defeated the Spanish within months
  • By 1821 turned his attention to Peru
    • Attacked Lima, by sea.
      • Caught Spanish off guard
s a independence1
S.A. Independence
  • One year later, San Martin met with Bolivar
    • No one knows what was talked about…
  • San martin gave up his command and left Bolivar to continue the fight on his own.
  • Bolivar drove the remaining Spanish out of S.A.
  • By 1825, only Cuba and Puerto Rico were still ruled by Spain
brazil s independence
Brazil’s Independence
  • Became independent without fighting a war.
  • In 1800s Portugal's royal family fled war in Portugal - came to Brazil
  • They returned in 1821, but the king left his son (Dom Pedro) to rule the colony.
  • He declared Brazil independent, three years later Portugal agreed to the independence
latin american challenges
Latin American Challenges
  • Many countries fought over how their countries should be governed
  • Many nations ended up poor.
  • Bolivar wanted South America to become “ONE” united country - “Gran Columbia”
    • Made up of Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama
    • Did not accomplish, geography played big role in downfall
  • Many leaders were “caudillos”
    • Military officers who ruled strictly
    • Wanted power and to get rich, didn’t care about the people
section 5

Section 5

Issues in Latin America Today

foreign investment
Foreign Investment
  • In the 1900’s many foreign countries invested in Latin American countries
      • Built factories and farms there
  • Companies made big profits, but didn’t help the countries out.
  • Countries started plans to build their own factories and farms to make their economies stronger.
  • In the 1980’s oil prices went up…
  • Countries needed oil to run factories…had to pay higher prices for it.
  • Started to go into debt, had to get loans from other wealthier countries (USA).
  • Most still have not payed off this debt
  • Good thing -- this debt brought an end to many militarist regimes.
improving economies test
Improving Economies (TEST)
  • Today many Latin American countries limit how outside companies can invest.
  • Countries trade with each other more now than in the past
  • There is more diversity among the products that are produced from Latin American countries
  • Built more factories
Land $$$$$
  • Land is Latin Americas most important resource
  • Much of the land is owned by a few wealthy families
    • Haciendas occupy this land
  • Some poor families own small tracts of land
    • Campesinos - poor farmers- grow only enough for themselves
moving to the city
Moving to the city
  • Many campesinos have decided to move to the city.
  • This has resulted in the RAPID growth of cities.
  • Reasons to move to the cities…(test)
    • Improve quality of their life
    • Jobs
    • Find comfortable homes
    • Better medical care
    • Good schools for their children

Aztecs, Incas, Mayans

2 colonies

Leaders of S.A. independence


Foreign companies

Copan and Tikal


Location of civilizations

Inca, Mayan, Aztecs

Line of demarcation

Price of oil in 1980s

Gran Colombia

Controlling foreign investment

Criollo, Hieroglyphic, Rural, Urban, Aquaduct, Caudillo, Mestizo, Encomienda, Campesino, Conquistador, Quipu, Hacienda

Columbus, natives, where he landed

Moving to the cities

Improving economies of L.A. countries

Ends of native American civilizations

Haiti’s independence, what inspired it??

Why Spanish were able to conquer

Foreign investment - early 1900’s

Foreign investment - last few years