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AP Bio Exam Review. Molecular Biology. Importance of molecules and bonding Bonds: Ionic – transfer of electrons, results in charged atoms or ions Covalent – sharing of electrons; most common in organic molecules. Types of covalent bonds.

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AP Bio Exam Review


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    1. AP Bio Exam Review

    2. Molecular Biology • Importance of molecules and bonding Bonds: Ionic – transfer of electrons, results in charged atoms or ions Covalent – sharing of electrons; most common in organic molecules

    3. Types of covalent bonds • Polar – results if one element is more “grabby” for the electrons (oxygen, nitrogen) ex – Oxygen in the H2O molecule • Nonpolar – electrons are shared equally, no areas of charge • Important in shape of molecules

    4. Bonds between molecules • Hydrogen bonding- “attraction” between H of one molecule and an electronegative element in another molecule

    5. Van der Waal forces: is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules

    6. Organic chemistry – the chemistry of Carbon compounds • Most biochemical macromolecules are polymers (units linked together) • For the exam, think about what elements are found in the various macromolecules.

    7. Carbohydrates • Main energy source • Made of monosaccharides • many H and OH • In water, forms rings

    8. Can link together to form disaccharides or polysaccharides (starches) with the loss of a water molecule (dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction)

    9. When polysaccharides are taken apart, water has to be added back in: Hydrolysis

    10. Important polysaccharidesThese are made of glucose units. • Glycogen – animal starch, stored in liver and muscles • Cellulose – plant starch (animal can’t digest) • Amylose – plant starch

    11. Don’t forget when figuring out formula for the polysaccharides to subtract the water molecules! Linking 6 glucose (C6H12O6) units:

    12. Proteins • Made of amino acids (20) • Used for structure, enzymes, hormones, transport molecules, etc. • Shape very important

    13. R groups? • Make each amino acid unique • Can confer polarity to the protein • Can be hydrophobic or hydrophilic • Important in secondary and tertiary folding

    14. Orientation is important – Carboxyl group joined to amino group Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds in a condensation (dehydration) reaction

    15. Three levels of protein structure • Primary: chain of amino acids • Secondary: Beta pleats and alpha helix due to hydrogen bonding • Tertiary: interactions betweenR groups due to ionic attractions, polarity, disulfide bridges, etc. • Quaternary: attractions between chains

    16. Lipids • Used for insulation, energy • Nonpolar (do not dissolve in water) • Contain fats, oils, waxes, steroids such as cholesterol

    17. Structure of a fat – glycerol and 3 fatty acids unsaturated

    18. Phospholipids make up cell membranes

    19. Steroids, such as cholesterol,ring structure Also important in cell membranes

    20. Nucleic Acids • DNA, RNA • Made of nucleotides • Each nucleotide has a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous base (A,T,C,G) • Nucleotides also found in ATP and GTP, energy transfer molecules

    21. Enzymes • Protein catalysts • Very specific • Affected by temp, pH, competing molecules • Rate can be altered by amount of substrate/enzyme • Usually named by what they work on

    22. Enzyme Lab • Catalase – breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen • Used sulfuric acid to stop reaction • Titration using KMnO4 to measure amt of H2 O2 left. • Measured rate

    23. The rate can be defined as the amount of product formed in a period of time.

    24. Allosteric Interactions • Another molecule can bind and cause the enzyme to change shape

    25. Difference in Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells • Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles such as nuclei, ER, Golgi, etc. • Their energy reactions are carried on in sections of their cell membrane. • They do have ribosomes , DNA and some have cell walls.

    26. Developing the eukaryotic cell • Think about importance of an endomembrane system (endocytosis) and endosymbiosis.

    27. Cell Organelles Nucleus – control via DNA making proteins Nucleolus – stores ribosomes ER – rough – site of ribosome attachment - smooth – lipid metabolism, toxin removal Lysosomes – digestive vacuoles Golgi – packages, modifies proteins Mitochondria – energy (ATP) via aerobic cell. resp Chloroplasts – photosynthesis Cytoskeletal elements – microtubules, microfilaments, support, make up other structures (centrioles, flagella, etc.) Centrioles – cell division (animal cells), anchor spindle fibers

    28. Cell Membrane • Made of phospholipids and integral and peripheral proteins (act as carrier molecules, enzymes, gates etc) • Cholesterol – maintains fluidity • Have glycoproteins and glycolipids as surface markers (receptors, MHC’s etc) • Hydrophobic on inside, hydrophilic on outside

    29. Differences in cells • Cell walls in plant, fungi, bacterial cells • Cell wall composition varies - fungi: chitin - plants: cellulose - bacteria: peptidoglycan • Chloroplasts in photosynthetic cells

    30. Connections between cells Gap junctions – animals Plasmodesmata – plant cells

    31. Movement of materials in and out of cells • Surface area to volume ratio important in determining the movement of materials Smaller cells better!

    32. Types of transport • Diffusion (facilitated uses carrier molecules/channels) – passive • Osmosis – Water movement – passive • Active Transport: against conc gradient, - uses energy and carrier molecules, also includes endocytosis and exocytosis

    33. Osmolarity • Direction of water flow depends on solute conc • WATER ALWAYS MOVES INTO A HYPERTONIC (HYPEROSMOTIC) SITUATION! • Look at solute concentration to gauge water movement.

    34. Equation for water potential (osmotic potential) Ψ = ΨP + Ψs pressure potential + solute potential (+ or -) (always -) Ψ = 0 MPa for pure water As you add solute, the wp becomes more negative Water Potential

    35. Our lab: Diffusion • Used bags of different molarities; weighed water gain • Determined the solute potential SP of potato cells • Where graph crossed line (no gain or loss of water) gave molar concentration - Use SP = -iCRT (to figure out solute potential; C = molar conc)

    36. Cell Cyclecontrolled by checkpoints, CDK, cyclin

    37. Mitosis • Keeps chromosome no. constant, no genetic diversity • 2 identical cells • Stages: PMAT • Think about what is happening to the DNA during the stages.

    38. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

    39. cytokinesis • Actual division of cytoplasm • Forms cell plate in plant cells • Cleavage furrow in animal cells

    40. Meiosis • Purpose: to divide chromosome number in half (diploid – haploid) and to promote diversity. • Results in 4 NONIDENTICAL cells due to crossing over, different arrangement of chromosomes at Metaphase I. • Meiosis I: cuts chrom no in half • Meiosis II: divides chromatids

    41. When does crossing- over occur? Tetrads

    42. Meiosis is used to make gametes Some organisms such as fungi have complete bodies made of haploid cells

    43. GeneticsRemember ratios. • One trait F2 3:1 (Aa x Aa) • Two trait – Remember each organisms has two alleles for each trait! ex: tall, green plant TtGg Each gamete gets ONE of each allele pair. Think of all possibilities. ex: TG, Tg, tG, tg F2 9:3:3:1 (AaBb x AaBb)

    44. Be able to relate crosses to Mendel’s laws: Law of Segregation – alleles separate during formation of gametes

    45. Law of Independent Assortment:each allele separates independently of other allele in pair (ie chromosomes in Metaphase I of meiosis)