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Second Test Next Wednesday. Format Multiple Choice (10 questions) 4 0% Short Answer (2 questions) 20% Essay (1 question) 40%. Second Test Next Wednesday. Content to be tested Theories Modernization Dependency Statism Neo-liberalism Conc epts Corporatism

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second test next wednesday
Second Test Next Wednesday
  • Format
    • Multiple Choice (10 questions)40%
    • Short Answer (2 questions) 20%
    • Essay (1 question) 40%
second test next wednesday1
Second Test Next Wednesday
  • Content to be tested
    • Theories
      • Modernization
      • Dependency
      • Statism
      • Neo-liberalism
    • Concepts
      • Corporatism
      • Patron-client relations
    • Institutions
      • Political and economic
        • Parliamentary/Presidential system
        • Electoral system
        • Role of state/market in economic development
themes in nigerian development
Themes in Nigerian Development
  • Legacies of colonialism
    • Dependency theory
  • Role of the state
    • Statism—developmental or predatory state institutions?
  • Individual values
    • Modern vs. traditional values?
  • Role of the market
    • Is the free market allowed to function, promote efficiency?
legacies of british colonialism
Legacies of British Colonialism

Dominant role for state in the economy

Politicization of ethnicity

legacies of british colonialism1
Legacies of British Colonialism
  • Dominant role for state in economy
    • Colonial and post-colonial state control over export commodities & production
      • through state marketing boards
      • monopsony—single buyer
global structure of agricultural commodity markets
Global Structure of Agricultural Commodity Markets
  • Tariff barriers against entering core markets
    • Example: European Union
      • Import tariffs increase the more processed a product becomes.
        • Ensures that most imports to the EU are raw products like coffee, cocoa (lower value-added)
        • EU tariffs
          • 30 percent for processed cocoa products like chocolate bars
          • 60 percent for some other refined products containing cocoa.
  • Non-tariff barriers against entering core markets
    • Example: EU
      • Strict EU standards for imported food products
        • Hygiene and health standards
        • Regulations for size, form and color
legacies of british colonialism2
Legacies of British Colonialism

Dominant role for state in economy

Raised stakes of office-holding

Control of state also meant control over economy

legacies of british colonialism3
Legacies of British Colonialism

Dominant role for state in economy

Created basis for “patronage politics”

Define

legacies of british colonialism4
Legacies of British Colonialism

Dominant role for state in economy

Created basis for “patronage politics”

Defined as “securing societal support for those in power by selective distribution of state resources”

post colonial nigeria
Post-colonial Nigeria

Dominant role for state in economy

Continued basis for “patronage politics”

Expands from agricultural commodities to oil

post colonial nigeria1
Post-colonial Nigeria

Dominant role for state in economy

Continued basis for “patronage politics”

Beyond commodities

Examples

Expansion of university system (not primary education)

Particularistic benefits

2002: adult literacy 57%

Expansion of civil service

Particularistic hiring

By 1980s, government employs 60% of urban sector

BUT most Nigerians rural

2002: 45% of population below poverty line

State enterprises

Number of state firms increased 4x from 1970-1980

compare nigeria and japan
Compare Nigeria and Japan
  • Civil service recruitment
legacies of british colonialism5
Legacies of British Colonialism

Politicization of ethnicity

“Africanization”

1951 regional assembly elections

Northern, Western, Eastern regions

Divisions coincide with ethnic divisions

Political parties organize along ethnic lines

1959 first full parliamentary elections

Parties coalesce along ethnic/regional lines

Electoral dominance: Northern Hausa-Fulani

Single largest ethnic group

Previously excluded

Seeks to gain and hold power for particular benefits

transition to civilian democratic rule
Transition to Civilian (Democratic) Rule
  • National Assembly
    • Senate (109 seats)
    • House of Representatives (360 seats)
      • Single-member districts
      • Elected by winner-take-all
        • British, US influence
        • Creates strong majorities
1999 democracy returns obasanjo elected
1999 Democracy Returns (Obasanjo elected)

A PDP election rally: Millions of Nigerians turned out for a peaceful vote

transition to civilian democratic rule1
Transition to Civilian (Democratic) Rule
  • 2007 presidential elections
    • 1st time an elected Nigerian leader handed power to another since independence in 1960
    • PDP north-south power-sharing agreement

Yar'Adua

ongoing challenges to democratic rule
Ongoing Challenges to Democratic Rule

Ethnic/religious tensions

Northern states

British colony—indirect rule

Islamic (Shari’a) Law continues in north

Today: Muslim with significant Christianity minority

1999 Shari’a Law becomes campaign issue

Seeks to expand beyond special family law courts

Shari’a Law introduced in 12 northern states

May 1999 – February 2002 alone

“more than 10,000 people have died in murderous ethnic and religious clashes (NYTimes 2/8/02)”

ongoing challenges to democratic rule1
Ongoing Challenges to Democratic Rule

Increasingly unfair elections

Charges that ruling People’s Democratic Party (PDP)

Used state resources for partisan purposes

Restricted access to state-owned media

Electoral fraud 2003, 2007

National level and for “lucrative” governorships

Thefts of ballot boxes

Violent intimidation of opposition

Independent National Electoral Commission

Commission not independent of the president (appoints)

“Unprepared for 2007 election…environment of uncertainty, growing insecurity among the population, rising political violence, and a disastrous voter registration process [computerized]” (int’l ngo: National Democratic Institute)