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Learning Goals and Objectives. York College Toby Boss ESU 6. Craft Knowledge. Professionals in any field…. Act on the most current knowledge that defines their field. Are client-centered and adapt to meet the needs of the individuals whom they serve. Are results oriented.

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learning goals and objectives

Learning Goals and Objectives

York College

Toby Boss

ESU 6

professionals in any field
Professionals in any field…
  • Act on the most current knowledge that defines their field.
  • Are client-centered and adapt to meet the needs of the individuals whom they serve.
  • Are results oriented.
  • Uphold the standards of the profession in their own practice and through peer review

(Wiggins and McTighe, 2006)

expert perceptions deanna burney 2006
Expert PerceptionsDeanna Burney, 2006
  • Educational research is shared only haphazardly among teachers.
  • Teachers do not, as a body, share an authoritative, proven understanding of the work they do.
  • Craft knowledge is confined to isolated classrooms.
  • The education system does not invest in the cultivation and dissemination of craft knowledge.
expert perceptions richard elmore
Expert PerceptionsRichard Elmore
  • Education is a profession without a practice.
  • We haven’t developed a clear sense of what we do, and how it relates to our core mission.
  • It is no longer acceptable to say that teaching is a mysterious thing, that occurs idiosyncratically in every classroom.
  • We need a systematic answer to the question of how we do what we do.
expert perceptions wiggins mctighe
Expert PerceptionsWiggins & McTighe
  • A weakness of our craft is that we do not require faculty to justify their teaching methods, course designs, and assessments against a set of principles.
  • Teachers can be thin-skinned when questions are raised about their practices.
  • When students fail to learn, some teachers end up blaming the students, without an honest investigation of where the student fault ends and teacher responsibility begins.
educational practice
Educational Practice
  • We must develop and nurture a practice in our profession.
  • Collaboration and peer review is the model in all other professions.
  • We need to develop an open, collaborative system about our practice, as opposed to private practice.
craft knowledge1
Craft Knowledge
  • Name it.
  • Describe it.
    • who, what, when, how
  • Say why it’s good.
    • why

“…the knowledge about the practice that is collected, codified, legitimated, and shared by professionals.”

(Burney, 2006)

craft knowledge2
Craft Knowledge
  • Think – What strategies/routines have you observed today that are applicable to your teaching assignment?
    • Name it.
    • Describe it.
    • Say why it’s good.
  • Pair – Discuss your ideas.
  • Share – Share one idea when prompted. Record craft techniques that you want to remember! Share on the EIS wiki at http://esu6eis.wikispaces.com
craft technique getting attention
Craft Technique: Getting Attention
  • It will be difficult to engage students in a variety of activities if a class can’t be efficiently brought back to the teacher’s attention
four steps
Four Steps:
  • Wrap-up – give a cue that it is time to finish the conversation or activity
  • Go to the same place in room
  • Pair verbal and non-verbal (countdown, hand up)
  • WAIT
slide15
“You’ve got to think about ‘big things’ while you’re doing small things, so that all the small things go in the right direction.”Alvin Toffler
literature framework
Literature Framework

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2007). Schooling by design. Alexandria, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

slide17
Essential

Adapted from McTighe & Wiggins

Nice to Know

Supplemental

transfer
Transfer
  • Apply learning to new situations not only in school, but also beyond it.
  • The point of school is to learn in school how to make sense of learnings in order to lead better lives out of school.
  • Learn now to apply lessons to later challenges.
enduring understandings
Enduring Understandings
  • An important inference, drawn from the experience of experts, stated as a specific and useful generalization.
  • Refers to transferable, big ideas having enduring understanding beyond a specific topic.
  • Involves abstract counterintuitive and easily misunderstood ideas.
enduring understandings1
Enduring Understandings
  • Is best acquired by “uncovering” (i.e., it must be developed inductively, co-constructed by learners) and “doing” the subject (i.e., using the ideas in realistic settings and with real-world problems).
  • Summarizes important strategic principles in skill areas.
knowledge vs understanding
The facts

A body of coherent facts

Verifiable claims

Right or wrong

I know something to be true

I respond on cue with what I know

The meaning of the facts

The “theory” that provides coherence

Fallible, in-process theories

A matter of degree

I understand why it is true

I judge when to use what I know

Knowledge vs Understanding
essentials
Essentials
  • Think of essentials as a job description
slide23
What are learning goals or essential learnings?

A learning goal (essential learning) is a statement of what students will understand and/or be able to do.

For example:

  • Students will understand direct and indirect democracies.
  • Students will be able to do three-column addition.
learning goals
LEARNINGGOALS
  • As a result of what we do today, you will:
  • Understand………
  • Be able to………………
  • Today’s assignment
  • Read pages 12-16
  • Complete 10 equations
  • Finish writing paragraph

ACTIVITIES

learning goals or activities assignments
Learning Goals or Activities/ Assignments?
  • Students will be able to recognize the protagonist, theme, and voice of a piece of literature.
  • Students will produce a book report on a book of their choice, including a table of contents, with proper pagination and format throughout.
  • Given a set of coordinates, students will be able to graph the slope of a line.
  • Students will compare and describe the slopes of two lines.
  • Students will understand the differences and similarities between metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks.
  • Students will understand how the Borgia family influenced the Renaissance.
  • Students will understand that matter is made of up of atoms and that atoms, in turn, are made up of sub-atomic particles.
  • Students will write a paper describing the relationships among atoms and sub-atomic particles.
what are the criteria for essential
What are the criteria for essential?
  • Endurance (Will this provide knowledge and skills that will be of value beyond a single test date?)
  • Leverage (Will this provide knowledge and skills that will be of value in multiple disciplines?)
    • Inquiry, critical thinking, inferences, problem solving
  • Readiness for next level of learning (Will this provide students will the “tools” they need for success at the next level or grade.)

Reeves, D. Cited in Ainsworth, L. (2003). “Unwrapping” the Standards. Englewood, CO. Advanced Learning Press.

essential learning process
Essential Learning Process
  • What is it that you promise your students will learn?
  • If a parent asked “what will my child learn in your class” - what would you say?
  • List about 10 concepts in your group for your grade.
  • Refer to state standards/frameworks when applicable
focus
Focus
  • Focus your list on content and skills, not on student behavior or dispositions.
  • Focus on the “What” and not the “How.”
sharing objectives
Sharing Objectives
  • Do your students know the objective(s) for the day?
  • The brain needs to make meaning of content.
  • Try this example – fill in the blanks
slide30
The questions that p____________ face as they raise

ch_______ from in________ to adult life are not easy to

an______. Both fa________ and m_________ can become

concerned when health problems such as

co___________ arise any time after the e__________

stage to later life. Experts recommend that young

ch_________ should have plenty of s__________ and

Nutritious food for healthy growth. B________ and g _______

should not share the same b__________ or even sleep in the

same r__________.

now try this
Now try this...
  • Objective:
    • Identify issues that poultry farmers face.
slide32
The questions that p____________ face as they raise

ch_______ from in________ to adult life are not easy to

an______. Both fa________ and m_________ can become

concerned when health problems such as

co___________ arise any time after the e__________

stage to later life. Experts recommend that young

ch_________ should have plenty of s__________ and

Nutritious food for healthy growth. B________ and g _______

should not share the same b__________ or even sleep in the

same r__________.

slide33
The questions that poultrymen face as they raise

chickensfrom incubation to adult life are not easy to

answer. Both farmers and merchants can become

concerned when health problems such as

coccidiosisarise any time after the egg

stage to later life. Experts recommend that young

chicksshould have plenty of sunshineand

Nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties and geese

should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the

same roost.

objectives learning targets outcomes learning goals benchmarks goals purpose
Objectives(learning targets, outcomes, learning goals, benchmarks, goals, purpose)
  • Express what students should know (declarative) or be able to do (procedural) at the end of a learning episode
    • What should they know / be able to do?
    • How will they show me their learning?
sharing objectives learning targets learning goals benchmarks goals purpose
Sharing Objectives(learning targets, learning goals, benchmarks, goals, purpose)
  • Stated explicitly very early in the lesson
  • Feedback tied closely to objectives
  • Clear purpose explained to students
    • relevance to students previous or future learning, current experience (sense & meaning)
  • Extensions:
    • students prioritize, set personal goals, paraphrase, etc.
partners a b
Partners A & B
  • Discuss why sharing clear objectives with students is important.
  • What are ways you can share objectives?
information processing model
Information Processing Model

(Sousa, How the Brain Learns, 2007, p. 39)

my brain asks
Does this new

learning make

sense?

Does this new

learning have

meaning?

My brain asks…
primacy recency effect serial positioning
Primacy-Recency EffectSerial Positioning
  • During a learning episode we remember best that which comes first, second best that which comes last and least that which comes just past the middle.
  • P 90 Sousa
slide40
If the rectangle below represents a period of time when learning will occur, when does the best learning occur?
amount of prime learning time
Amount of Prime Learning Time
  • 20 minute episode
    • 18 prime time (90%), 2 down time
  • 40 minute episode
    • 30 prime time (75%), 10 down time
  • 80 minute episode
    • 50 minute time (62%), 30 down time
so why is it necessary to change up instruction
So why is it necessary to change up instruction?

As your brain gets numb-er Your brain gets dumber

The brain can learn only what the butt can endure.

slide44
Changing STATESChange up instruction 5-10 min. for pre-adolescents, andEvery 10-20 minutes for adolescents into adults.
thinking about it
Thinking About It
  • Why would you want to change states when you finally have students quiet, sitting in their seats, and looking like they are listening to you?
  • Because the brain needs a chance to refocus and start again.
  • When you stand up blood flow to the brain increases.
synapses or brain breaks judith willis
Synapses or Brain BreaksJudith Willis
  • Change activates and turns on different parts of the brain.
  • Dopamine is a pleasure neurotransmitter that makes you feel good and is released during certain activities and depletes over time.
  • Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, needs an opportunity to recharge and rebuild.
  • Brain breaks (synapses) help to replenish.
trumps
Trumps
  • Movement – Sitting
  • Talking – Listening
  • Images – Words
  • Writing – Reading
  • Shorter – Longer
  • Different -- Same

(Bowman, “The Six Trumps Slide Set” available 8.15.12 from http://bowperson.com)/

frequent checks for understanding
Frequent Checks for Understanding
  • What:
    • teacher solicited, observable evidence of student understanding or processing of new information
    • student response to instruction (must say, write, do)
  • Why:
    • appropriate adjustment of instruction (differentiation)
    • increase focus
    • long-term memory requires reorganization / accurate practice of new information
10 2 5 1 ratio
APL

(Sharer, Anastasio, & Perry, 2007, p. 87-88)

10-2 (5-1) Ratio
  • For every ten minutes of instruction, take two minutes to check for understanding (5-1 for younger students).
    • All students
    • Overt participation
    • Directly related to objective
  • “Pause Procedure”
primacy recency effect
Primacy-Recency Effect
  • During a learning episode we remember best that which comes first, second best that which comes last and least that which comes just past the middle.
  • Applies from the time period from state change to state change.
slide52
“The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.”

Alvin Toffler 2001

An American writer and futurist

presumptions
Presumptions
  • Teaching is complex
  • The model should be “robust” enough to capture this complexity – 41 strategies
  • Teachers need not do them all
  • Gains are incremental - get better at a few each year
  • Feedback using a common language of instruction is critical
background
Background
  • People are motivated by three things
    • Purpose
    • Autonomy
    • Mastery
      • (Robert Marzano and Daniel Pink citing Edward Deci)
  • Mastery of anything takes about 10,000 hours (Gladwell) or 10 years (Marzano)
  • Teaching is complex and takes about 10 years to master
the art and science of teaching
The Art and Science of Teaching

Ten Design Questions – What will I do to:

  • establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success?
  • help students effectively interact with new knowledge?
  • help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?
  • help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge?
  • engage students?
  • establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures?
  • recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures?
  • establish and maintain effective relationships with students?
  • communicate high expectations for all students?
  • develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit?
lesson segments
Lesson Segments
  • “Thin slices” of instruction
    • Those involving routines
    • Those involving content
    • Those enacted on the spot
slide57
The Art and Science of Teaching

Learning Goals and Feedback

Interacting with New Knowledge

Practicing and Deepening

Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Student Engagement

Establishing Rules and Procedures

Adherence to Rules and Procedures

Teacher-Student Relationships

High Expectations

Page 7, The Art & Science of Teaching

slide58
The Art and Science of Teaching

Student Engagement

Teacher/Student Relationships

Adherence to Rules and Procedures

High Expectations

ENACTED ON THE SPOT

INVOLVES ROUTINES

Learning Goals and Feedback

Rules and Procedures

ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS

Interacting with New Knowledge

Generating/ Testing Hypotheses

Practicing and Deepening

58

Heflebower, Marzano Research Laboratory

cutting-edge research concrete strategies sustainable success

games and inconsequential just for fun competition
Games and Inconsequential(Just for Fun) Competition
  • Games should always have an academic focus.
  • Regroup students so that all students experience winning and losing.
  • Points are tallied but not used to increase or decrease scores or grades.
research on the use of games to improve student learning
Research on The Use of Games to Improve Student Learning

Marzano Research Lab reports the results of three meta-analyses.

Student growth in classrooms that used games ranged from a 13 percentile gain to an 18 percentile gain.

This is significant.

taboo
TABOO

president

This favorite game is a great tool for students to practice vocabulary and summarize. The object is to get someone to say the word using clues that don’t use the “taboo” words.

Obama

White House

Republican

Washington

Lincoln

slide63
TABOO

Star Wars

Luke Skywalker

Darth Vader

Yoda

Movie

Princess Leia

slide64
TABOO

Bo Pelini

Nebraska

Coach

Football

Memorial Stadium

Cornhuskers

things associated with the american civil war

Things Associated with the American Civil War

Robert E. Lee

Ulysses S. Grant

Gettysburg

Slavery

Antietam

Emancipation Proclamation

Abraham Lincoln

things associated with outer space

Things Associated with Outer Space

Sun

Orbits

Mars

Venus

Saturn

Galaxy

Meteors

american holidays

American Holidays

Thanksgiving

4th of July

Fathers Day

Mothers Day

Veteran’s Day

Columbus Day

Martin Luther King Day

slide70
200 POINTS

Things that happened in the 1970’s

100 POINTS

100 POINTS

Things Albert Einstein would say

Types of government

50 POINTS

50 POINTS

50 POINTS

Liquids

Titles of plays

Battles

slide71
200 POINTS

Things you find on the moon

100 POINTS

100 POINTS

Types of music

Things a shark would say

50 POINTS

50 POINTS

50 POINTS

Nursery Rhymes

Planets

Presidents

slide72
200 POINTS

Things you find in China

100 POINTS

100 POINTS

Kinds of fish

Things a tree would say

50 POINTS

50 POINTS

50 POINTS

Soda Pop Flavors

Cities

Vegetables

social media
Social Media
  • Twitter Hashtags
    • #nebedu
    • #nebedchat
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