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Australiancontinentlies on the southern and easternhemispheres, between 11 ° and 39 ° southlatitude and between 113 ° and 153 ° east longitude.Itissurrounded by twooceans: the Pacific fromthenorth and east and the Indian fromthesouth and west. Ithas no land connection to anyothercontinent.GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION:
Thecountry islocatedinthetropical and sub-tropicalclimaticzone. Itliesinthetemperate and intertropicalzone of illumination of theEarth.ItcrossestheTropic of Capricorn. Factorsaffectingtheclimate of thecontinentare: proximity to bodies of water, latitude and isolation of thecontinent.
Locationof Australia inthe southern hemispheredistributiondeterminesthedifferentseasons of theyearthaninthe northern hemisphere. January isthewarmestmonth of theyear (thehighestaverageannualtemperature), whileJulyhasthelowestaveragetemperatures.
Thewarmestmonths of theyearareNovember, December, January orFebruary (depending on thearea). In January, thehighestaverage air temperaturesarein Western Australia (Marble Bar), wheretheyamount to about 33 ° C.Theentire western part of the land, to theperiodic River CoopersCreek, iscovered by a then 30 ° C isotherm.Tothesouth of theisothermtemperaturesaregettinglower, up to 15 ° C on theisland of Tasmania. January isothermsissimilar to theparallel. Thisisdue to theinflux of moist air masses and the trade winds.AIR TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION:
Thecourse of precipitation per yearisdifferent. Summerprecipitationmostlyinthe northern part of thecontinent to thenorth of theTropic of Capricorn.Inthesouth, winterrainfall. In theeastern part of precipitationpersistthroughouttheyear on theinnerside of the mountains and thecoolseason on theeasternslopes.Inthemiddle of the land rainfallisscarceormissing.
Thelargestamountof rainfallover 1000 mm per year, receivetheends of thenorth-easternshore, thecoast of the Kimberley, Arnhem Land, York Peninsula.
Thepopulation of thecontinenthasabout 20 millioninhabitants. The most populousstatesare New SouthWales and Victoria, inwhichtherearetwo major Australiancities - Sydney and Melbourne.Thehighestpopulationdensityischaracterized by theeastern and south-easterncoast of thecontinent.POPULATION:
In 1788, the number of indigenous people (Aborigines) was estimated at about 300 thousand. people over 145 years there has been a catastrophic spadekna the switch. Twentieth and twenty-first century, indigenous people accounted for about 1.5% of the total population(about 260 thousand). Austral modern society. is the result of immigration, the population of Australia was mostly of British origin.
Australia's largest city Sydney, the state capital of New South Wales. Founded in 1788, Sydney is now Australia's leading financial center, commercial, transport and cultural center, popular tourist center and the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop and England.
Population: 4 293 100LARGER CITIES OF AUSTRALIA:
Thecapital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and thesecondlargest city in Australia inhabited by 4 millioninhabitantsinthemetropolitanarea of Melbourne.
City in Australia, the state capital of Queensland, situatedatthemouth of the Brisbane River to Moreton Bay. Itis one of thelargestcitiesin Australia. Subtropicalclimatewith hot, humidsummers and warm, mildwinters.
Population:1 810 900
Australianbasedprimarily on the "standard" (British) English, withsignificantinfluences American variety of thelanguage, someelementsborroTheinflux of American Englishvocabulary to Australia beganinthemid-nineteenthcenturyduringtheAustraliangoldrush, whenitcame to Australia many Americans. Today, AustralianEnglish "borrows" wordsfrombothlanguages.wedfromEuropeanlanguages, and a fewwordsborrowedfromAboriginallanguages.LANGUAGE
Australia federal constitutional monarchy, in union with the United Kingdom as one of the Commonwealth realms.
Legislative power is exercised at the federal Parliament of Australia. Formally consists of three chambers: the Queen of Australia, the Senate and House of Representatives. The role of the queen in the lawmaking process is symbolic.GOVERNMENT OF AUSTRALIA
The Australian dollar - is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia. The Australian dollar is popular with currency traders, because of the comparatively high interest rates in Australia, the relative freedom of the foreign exchange market from government intervention, the general stability of Australia's economy and political system, and the prevailing view that the Australian dollar offers diversification benefits in a portfolio containing the major world currencies, especially because of its greater exposure to Asian economies and the commodities cycle.AUSTRALIAN CURRENCY
School attendance is compulsory throughout Australia. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territories so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 up until about 16. In at least some states children aged 16–17 are required to either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an apprenticeship.
Australian young people after completing the tenth grade may continue their education in the so-called. senior secondary schools (grades 11-12), after graduating and passing the state exam (baccalaureate) to commence study at TAFE institutes, colleges or universities.SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
The presence of Christianity in Australia began in 1788. Christianity has reached 96.1% of the national population at the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901. In Australian cities, the Christian churches have played an important role in the development of education, health and social care services in Australia.
Buddhists began arriving in Australia in 1850. Buddhism is one of the fastest-growing religion in Australia. The three main traditions of Buddhism - Theravada, East Asian and Tibetan Buddhism are now represented in Australia.
In the nineteenth century, the first Indians came to Australia to work on cotton plantations and sugar. Today, many Indians are well educated professionals in medicine, engineering, commerce and information technology. There are approximately 34 Hindu temples in Australia.
The Jewish population has increased slightly in recent years, due to immigration from South Africa and the former Soviet Union. The largest Jewish community in Australia is in Melbourne (60,000 people), and then in Sydney (45,000 people). Fewer Jews living in other cities in Australia.RELIGION OF AUSTRALIA
- AUSTRALIA DAY - January 26 commemorates the establishment by Captain Arthur Phillip, the first permanent settlement in Australia. Australia Day is celebrated in all states and territories of Australia, it is a day off from work, if a Saturday or Sunday is a day off from work is a Monday.
- ANZAC DAY - April 25 commemorates all those who lost their lives during military operations
- QUEEN'S BIRTHDAY - the second Monday in June During this holiday traditionally organizes a wonderful fireworks show.
- CHRISTMAS - 25 - 26 December.CHRISTMAS IN AUSTRALIA
Australians are a nation approaching light enough for life. feel very comfortable in working and social life. Live as they want and really do not care specifically that something is not proper to do.AUSTRALIAN CUSTOMS
Contemporary Australian cuisine is based on the selection of all the best of many cuisines of the world. One of the dishes is Australian vegemite (pasta bread spreads made from yeast extract). Mainly consumed by children, it has a very strong and
distinctivetaste and smell,
does not meet her outside
Lamingtony- sponge cake in the form of cubes, covered with a layer of chocolate, jam and densely covered with coconut
The famous sand rock lies in the central part of Australia, has more than 318 feet tall, and its circuit consists of 8 kilometers. Rock consists of sandstone, and consists of various minerals, so it seems that it changes colors.INTERESTING PLACES IN AUSTRALIA AND TOURIST ATTRACTIONS
It is the largest sand island in the world, situated on the east coast of Australia. On the island, we can observe migrating whales, dolphins and wild dingo dogs. The island also has the world's cleanest lake.
There are great parks, is home to many banks and insurance companies. However, finding a place here, and the arts, fall, galleries and museums, a lively theater scene and attractive restaurants.
Is one of the
bridge in the
Anthem: Advance Australia Fair
National colours of Australia: Green and gold
Queen Elizabeth II was born in April, but the official birthday celebrations fall in different countries on different days. Australia is the second Monday in June. Therefore, the Australians May holidays and celebrate by visiting the shopping center.
Australia is linked to a personal union with Great Britain, each new monarch becomes the British monarch of Australia. The result is that the vast majority of the time the Queen is outside Australia. In the place of all of its functions are performed by the Governor-General of Australia.ROYAL TRADITION
2000 it was known only in Australia.The
role in the film X-Men brought him fame
- Nicole Kidman - Australian actress and singer who was born in the United States. appeared in many Australian films and television series.PERSONALITIES FRO M THE WORLD ART, FILM, THEATER AND VISUAL ARTS
- BilleBrown - Australian actor of film, theater and television director, playwright. He died on January 13, 2013 from cancer.
- Philip Quast - Australian musical actor,
best known for the role of Javert in the
musical Les Miserables. He also plays
in films and television series.
- Sidney Nolan- born 22 April 1917 died 28 November 1992. Was an Australian painter. One of the images is "Quilting the Armour„
Itis one of thelongeststructuresintheworldwhiletheworld'slargestperimeter. Itslengthis 5.614 km.DingoFence, alsoknown as Psie fence, was used for separationthefertilelands of thesouth-eastern part of thecontinentfromanypests, especiallydogs Dingo.INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT AUSTRALIA:
Royal Air Medical Service (The Flying Doctors) is a major medical service operatingincase of emergencyinthevastruralareas of Australia.
Attheturn of thecentury (2000) intheAustraliansheeppopulation was estimatedat 120 millionunits. An interestingfactisthatthesheepin Australia is five timesmorethanthepopulation, whichis 20 million.
Locatedon the southern plains of Australia, The Anna Creekranchistheworld'slargestpasture. Includes a hugearea of 34.000 km ². Multiplicity greater than, for example, Belgium.
TheGreat BarrierReefisthelargestcoralreefintheworld, well, itisthelargestorganic construction on earth. ItislocatedintheCoralSeaoffthecoast of Queensland and extendsover a length of 1250 km.
Team sportsgame.Itconsists of two 35-minute parts of the 5-min interval. Theaim of thegameis to pocketwith a woodenstick a roundballwith a diameter of about 7-7.5 cm and a weight of approximately 160 g of theopponent'sgoal.
Team sport inwhichgamesareplayedbetweentwoteams of elevenplayers.
Aboriginalbeliefistotallyabstract and consists of severalelements. Sleep time is independent of time everyday.
Mythsabouttheorigin of death:
DifferentAboriginalgroupsknow a few, if not several, of mythsabouttheorigin of death. For example, themythMaungin northern Arnhem Land tellsthe story of thefightopossumthemoon. Opossumdiedwhenhepredictedthefate of allmankind. Moon but saidthatpeople will be discouragedfrom time to time as he.BELIEFS:
Thebeliefs of themajority of Australiangroupsinhabitingthehuman body twospirits, the most commonisthe "shadow" and "reflection".
Burialsin Australia usuallyconsist of severalstages. Significantisthefactthatthepurpose of a funeralis to ensurethat no dead body, but his spirit and thisissubordinated to thewholeceremony.