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Semester 1, Day 4. Cell Energy. Agenda. Turn in homework Plasma Membrane and Protein Synthesis, Folding, & Transport Quiz Lecture on Cell Energy Break for 4 minutes Book Work. Homework. Cornell Notes 7.2, 7.3, and 8.1 Questions on each section. Quiz.

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agenda
Agenda
  • Turn in homework
  • Plasma Membrane and Protein Synthesis, Folding, & Transport Quiz
  • Lecture on Cell Energy
  • Break for 4 minutes
  • Book Work
homework
Homework
  • Cornell Notes 7.2, 7.3, and 8.1
  • Questions on each section
slide4
Quiz
  • Plasma Membrane & Protein Synthesis, Folding & Transport
    • Remain silent while taking quiz
    • Keep eyes on your own paper
    • When finished, flip paper over
    • Draw me a pretty picture
    • All papers will be collected when everyone is finished
chemistry mini lesson reactions catalysts
Chemistry Mini-Lesson: Reactions & Catalysts
  • Chemical Reaction: process by which atoms or compounds are reorganized into different atoms/compounds.
    • Photosynthesis Reaction
      • 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light  C6H12O6 + 6O2

C

O

O

H

H

O

C

H

H

O

O

O

C

O

O

H

H

O

C

H

H

O

O

O

C

O

O

H

H

O

C

H

H

O

O

O

C

O

O

H

H

O

C

H

H

O

O

O

C

O

O

H

H

O

C

H

H

O

O

O

C

O

O

H

H

O

C

H

H

O

O

O

cell parts mitochondrion chloroplast
Cell Parts: Mitochondrion & Chloroplast
  • Simplified Photosynthesis (Plants)
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + light  C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • Simplified Cellular Respiration (Animals & Plants)
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + ~36ATP

(Light  Food)

Light

CO2

NADPH

Calvin Cycle

Light-Dependent

ATP

G3P

Glucose

H2O

O2

(Food  Cell Energy)

CO2

NAD+

NADH

ADP

Glucose

FADH2

Pyruvate

Krebs Cycle

ETC & Chemiosmosis

Glycolysis

NADH

Many ATP!

ATP

ATP

ADP

ADP

cell parts mitochondrion chloroplast1
Cell Parts: Mitochondrion & Chloroplast
  • Basic Relationship
  • Organelle Relationship

Cellular

Respiration

Photosynthesis

Light

CO2, H2O

ATP

Mitochondrion

Chloroplast

Animals & Plants

Plants

C6H12O6 (glucose), O2

cell parts mitochondrion chloroplast2
Cell Parts: Mitochondrion & Chloroplast
  • Organism Relationship: Why do plants & animals need each other?
    • CO2 & O2 CYCLE back and forth
    • Light Energy  Food Energy  Cellular Energy

ATP

H2O

CO2

O2

C6H12O6

cell parts chloroplast
Cell Parts: Chloroplast
  • Chloroplast: capture light energy; make food energy
  • Photosynthesis: occurs only in plants (not animals!)
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + light  C6H12O6 + 6O2

(energy)

(carbon dioxide)

(water)

(glucose sugar)

(oxygen)

from sun

from roots

absorb through leaves

released from leaves

stored in plant; for plant use or animal use with cellular respiration

Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Chloroplast-new.jpg

cell parts chloroplast1
Cell Parts: Chloroplast
  • Thylakoid: flattened discs containing chlorophyll
  • Granum (pl. Grana): stack of thylakoids
  • Stroma: fluid inside chloroplast (similar to a cell’s cytoplasm)
  • Lamella: links thylakoids in grana together
  • Lumen: inside of the thylakoid

Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Chloroplast-new.jpg

cell parts chloroplast2
Cell Parts: Chloroplast
  • Chlorophyll: pigment in chloroplasts that absorbs light
  • Review: Visible Light Spectrum
    • Radiant energy (or light energy) we can see
    • Sun emits many kinds of radiant energy
      • Infrared waves
      • UV-A
      • UV-B
      • Visible Light

Violet

Indigo

Blue

Green

Yellow

Orange

Red

“VIB G YOR” (or “ROY G BIV”)

cell parts chloroplast3
Cell Parts: Chloroplast
  • The color you see is the color that is reflected
  • Chlorophyll reflects green; absorbs ROYBIV!

Reflects:

Absorbs:

We See:

RED

OTHER COLORS

RED

R

O

Y

G

B

I

V

Light energy the plant uses!!!!

cell parts chloroplast4
Cell Parts: Chloroplast
  • Phase I: Light-Dependent Reactions
  • Phase 2: Light-Independent Reactions / Calvin Cycle

Image Source: bioweb.uwlax.edu

cell parts chloroplast5
Cell Parts: Chloroplast
  • Phase 1: Light-Dependent Reactions
    • Occurs at thylakoid membrane (Lumen Stroma)
    • Requires light (dependent)
cell parts chloroplast6
Cell Parts: Chloroplast
  • Phase 2: Calvin Cycle / Light-Independent Reactions
    • In stroma
    • Doesn’t directly require light energy (independent)
    • ATP & NADPH = energy, but not stable  converted to glucose sugar.
cell parts mitochondria
Cell Parts: Mitochondria
  • Mitochondria: Powerhouses; create ATP = ENERGY!
    • ATP (adenosine triphosphate): a nucleotide

Break Bond = ENERGY!

Adenosine

P

P

P

Ribose

(Nitrogenous Base)

(Phosphates)

(Sugar)

cell parts mitochondria1
Cell Parts: Mitochondria
  • Cellular Respiration
    • food energy  usable chemical energy (ATP)
    • Plants & Animals
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + ~36ATP

(glucose sugar)

(oxygen)

(carbon dioxide)

(water)

(energy)

eat

breathe out

secrete

breathe in

use

cell parts mitochondria2
Cell Parts: Mitochondria
  • Mitochondrion
    • Matrix: fluid inside mitochondrion (similar to a cell’s cytoplasm)
    • Cristae: a fold of the inner membrane
    • Outer Membrane: encloses entire mitochondrion
    • Inner Membrane: forms internal folds; more surface area
    • Intermembrane Space: region between membranes

Outer Membrane

Inner Membrane

Matrix

Intermembrane Space

Cristae

Glycolysis

Krebs Cycle

ETC

cell parts mitochondria3
Cell Parts: Mitochondria
  • Step 1: Glycolysis – “Splitting of sugar”
    • Cell’s cytoplasm (outside of mitochondrion)
    • Glucose sugar split into 2 pyruvate
    • NADH (an electron carrier that takes H+s and e-s) created
    • A few ATP are created
    • Simplified:

6-Carbon Sugar

“splitting”

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

Glucose

(6-Carbon Sugar)

Pyruvate

(3-Carbon Sugar)

Pyruvate

(3-Carbon Sugar)

glycolysis
Glycolysis

(Food  Cell Energy)

CO2

NAD+

NADH

ADP

Glucose

FADH2

Pyruvate

Krebs Cycle

ETC & Chemiosmosis

Glycolysis

NADH

Many ATP!

ATP

ATP

ADP

ADP

cell parts mitochondria4
Cell Parts: Mitochondria
  • Step 2: Krebs Cycle OR Citric Acid Cycle
    • Mitochondrial Matrix
    • H+s and e-s are taken off of pyruvate by NADH and FADH2 to go to the next step
    • CO2 created at this step
    • Small number of ATP created at this step

H (Hydrogen)

H+ (Hydrogen Ion)

  • Electron (e-)

-

-

+

+

-1 (negatively charged)

= 1e- + 1p+ + 0n0

= 1(-1) + 1(1) + 0(0)

= -1 +1 + 0

= 0

= 0e- + -p+ + 0n0

= 0(-1) + 1(1) + 0(0)

= 0 +1 + 0

= +1

krebs cycle
Krebs Cycle

(Food  Cell Energy)

CO2

NAD+

NADH

ADP

Glucose

FADH2

Pyruvate

Krebs Cycle

ETC & Chemiosmosis

Glycolysis

NADH

Many ATP!

ATP

ATP

ADP

ADP

cell parts mitochondria5
Cell Parts: Mitochondria
  • Step 3: Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
    • Inner Membrane(Mitochondrial Matrix  Intermembrane Space)
    • Produces the most ATP!

Outer Membrane

Inner Membrane

Matrix

Intermembrane Space

Cristae

Glycolysis

Krebs Cycle

ETC

cell parts mitochondria6
Cell Parts: Mitochondria
  • Step 3: Electron Transport Chain

H+

INTERMEMBRANE SPACE

H+

H+

Pyruvate

e-

O2

NADH

e-

e-

NADH

ATP Synthase

(enzyme/protein)

FADH2

e-

Krebs Cycle

e-

ADP

P

½O2

H+

H2O

H+

2H+

32ATP

MATRIX

Inner Membrane (Mitochondrial, NOT Cellular)

cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • Overall: Cellular respiration in eukaryotes creates ~36 ATP
    • 2 from Glycolysis + 2 from Krebs + 32 from ETC.

Outer Membrane

Inner Membrane

Matrix

Intermembrane Space

Cristae

Glycolysis

Krebs Cycle

ETC

(Food  Cell Energy)

CO2

NAD+

NADH

ADP

Glucose

FADH2

Pyruvate

Krebs Cycle

ETC & Chemiosmosis

Glycolysis

NADH

Many ATP!

ATP

ATP

ADP

ADP

reading work time
Reading/Work Time
  • Cornell notes on 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3
  • Answer the following questions:
    • 9.1: #1-7
    • 9.2: #1-6
    • 9.3: #1-7
    • Chapter 9 Assessment: #1-19, #21-24