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Soil Erosion. Bird City, Kansas. St. Francis, Kansas . San Luis Valley, Colorado. Al Asad, Iraq. The Dustbowl. How much soil is lost?. 5 Billion Tons, Billion with a “B” lost each year 3.5 Billion tons due to Water 1.5 Billion tons due to Wind. What is average loss?.

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Presentation Transcript
how much soil is lost
How much soil is lost?
  • 5 Billion Tons, Billion with a “B” lost each year
    • 3.5 Billion tons due to Water
    • 1.5 Billion tons due to Wind
what is average loss
What is average loss?
  • Scientists expect to lose 5 tons per acre per year
    • This much can be re-captured through soil formation
  • Water makes up 4.8 tons lost
  • Wind makes up 3.3 tons lost
  • 8.1 tons is average
lasting effects of erosion
Lasting effects of erosion
  • Loss of topsoil-loss of productive organisms
  • Organic matter gone along with N-P-K
  • Reduced Root Zone-less water holding capacity
  • Gullies make farming difficult
  • Pollutes lakes, streams causing harm to wildlife
  • Sediment fills up lakes, streams, and waterways
  • Loss of $$$$ due to un-productive soil

Sediment fills and pollutes a lake

what affects erosion
What affects erosion
  • #1 Texture and Structure
    • The coarser the texture, the higher infiltration rate, the lower amounts of run-off
    • Fine particles detach easier than large particles
      • Silt erodes faster than sand
    • Good structures resist rain splash and wind lift
what affects erosion1
What affects erosion
  • #2 Slope
    • Length and steepness or grade both need considered
    • Length accounts for volume of erosion
    • Grade creates water velocity
    • Long fields have snowball effect with wind
      • Little loss at the head end, piles of soil at the bottom end
what affects erosion2
What affects erosion
  • #3 Surface Roughness
    • Rough soil slows water

and reduces downhill flow

    • Tillage ridges are helpful
    • Tillage across slope prevents erosion, tillage with the slope promotes erosion
what affects erosion3
What affects erosion
  • #4 Surface Cover
    • Surface cover reduces impact from falling water and slows down movement of water
    • Surface crops’ roots hold soil closely
    • Row crops need a foliage canopy to help protect soil
what affects erosion4
What affects erosion
  • #5 Climate
    • Dry soils and dry climates promote wind erosion
    • The drier the soil particles the greater risk of being picked up and moved elsewhere
    • Dry weather promotes wind loss
types of erosion
Types of erosion
  • #1 Splash Erosion
    • Water hits the soil and can move particles as much as 5 feet!
types of erosion1
Types of erosion
  • #2 Sheet erosion
    • A thin layer of soil is removed as a sheet.
    • Sheet erosion hides until topsoil is lost and subsoil is exposed.

Sheet erosion exposes sub-soil in the circles

types of erosion2
Types of erosion
  • #3 Rill erosion
    • Many small channels on slopes
    • Running water carves out rills
    • Still can be filled in by tillage
types of erosion3
Types of erosion
  • #4 Ephemeral (e fem er al)
    • Large rills
    • Tillage won’t completely fill them in
    • The next rain will create gullies if not fixed
types of erosion4
Types of erosion
  • #5 Gully erosion
    • So large equipment cannot cross
    • Begin on steep slopes where water creates enough energy to cut large channels in the earth