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  1. Outline • Milgram • What is a group? • Do others help or hurt performance? • Social facilitation • Social loafing • Pitfalls • Deindividuation • Group polarization • Group Think

  2. Outline • Exam next Thursday Nov 1st (7,8, & 9) – study guide, learning objectives, and studying tips on angel • Review session (Tuesday 7:45pm to 8:45 pm  262 Willard) • Extra credit due 10/30 at 11 pm, will say zero until we grade it (which will be within 2 weeks of it being due) • Ch 8 question 9 in the text: correct answer is C

  3. Milgram • Context (WWII) Arrive at Yale • 2 people, “randomly” assigned to learner and teacher role (Ss always teacher) • Learner gets shocks, 15v slight, Very strong, Danger: severe shock, 450 v (xxx) Asked colleagues – thought less 1% go to end

  4. % of participants who exhibited full obedience

  5. Key Points in Milgram • Normative social influence – normative pressures made it hard to say no • Said no if confederates acting as “teachers” stopped • Informational social influence – experimenter knows best • Disappears if expert gone • another subject gives orders • subjects give own level of shock • another example of it happening today

  6. Resisting • Idiosyncrasy credits – if conform to group often enough, then can, on occasion, behave differently without retribution • Minority influence – minority can influence majority • Do not waver • No other minority opinion • Often leads to informational social influence, rather than normative social influence • Culture is individualistic • Have an ally in the group

  7. Ch 9: Group Processes • What is a group? • Students in a large class • A family • Member of the Sierra Club • Residents of the same dorm • A baseball team • A crew building a highway

  8. A Group • 3 or more people interacting with one another and are interdependent, in that their need and goals cause them to influence each other. • Students in a large class Maybe( interact? Interdependent?) • A family Yes • Member of the Sierra Club No (interact) • Residents of the same dorm Maybe( interact? Interdependent?)) • A baseball team Yes • A crew building a highway Yes

  9. Do others help or hurt individual performance? • It depends on • whether your individual efforts can be evaluated or not • Whether the task is easy or hard for you

  10. Social Facilitation Helps simple tasks Individual efforts can be evaluated Alertness Evaluation apprehension Arousal Impairs complex tasks Presence of others Social Loafing

  11. Figure 9.3Cockroaches and Social FacilitationIn the maze on the left, cockroaches had a simple task: to go from the starting point down the runway to the darkened box. They performed this feat faster when other roaches were watching than when they were alone. In the maze on the right, the cockroaches had a more difficult task. It took them longer to solve this maze when other roaches were watching than when they were alone. (Based on data in Zajonc, Heingartner, & Herman, 1969)

  12. Social Facilitation Helps simple tasks Individual efforts can be evaluated Alertness Evaluation apprehension Arousal Impairs complex tasks Presence of others Impairs simple tasks (unmotivated) Individual efforts cannot be evaluated No evaluation apprehension Relaxation Helps complex tasks Social Loafing

  13. Facilitation and loafing • Complete a Maze • IV: • alone (ind performance evaluated by group) • Group (ind perf not evaluated) • IV: Easy or Hard

  14. An example (High #= bad performance) Low # = good performance • Easy : • Ind: good (social facilitaton) • Group: bad (loafing) • Hard • Ind: bad (social fac hurts hard) • Group: good