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Life Processes and Living things AQA GCSE Science Double Award SPECIFICATION B: Co-ordinated
About Your Course • This is the first lesson of your Year 10 GCSE Biology Course. Science is worth two GCSEs from A*A*-DD at Higher level and from CC-GG at Foundation Level. We will discuss your tier of entry after the Y11 Mock exam. • Biology contributes 26 2/3% towards your final GCSE grade • 20% of your final grade is an Coursework Investigatiom
Modules you will study: [Y10] • 10.1: Cell Activity • 10.2: Transport across Boundaries • 10.3 Cell Division (Year 11) • 10.4 Nutrition • 10.5 Circulation • 10.6 Breathing • 10.7 Respiration • 10.8 Nervous system • 10.9 Homeostasis • 10.11 Disease • 10.13 Drugs • 10.14 Plant Nutrition • 10.15 Transport and Water Relations
Modules you will study [Y11] • 10.16 Variation • 10.17 Genetics and DNA • 10.18 Controlling Inheritance • 10.19 Evolution • 10.20 Adoption and Competition • 10.21 Human impact on the environment • 10.22 Energy and Nutrient transfer • 10.23 Nutrient Cycles
Lesson objectives • To recap the 7 Life Processes • To be able to start 10.1: Plant and Animal Cells • To understand the differences between plant and animals in terms of structure • To recall the functions of the different parts of plants and animal cells • To be able to show this in a visual form. • HT: To understand the term Mitochondria
Life Processes These can be remembered using the Mnemonic ‘’MRS NERG’’ or ‘’MES GREN’’ • Movement- the ability to move from one place to another • Respiration – a chemical process that takes place in every living cell • Sensitivity – the ability to respond to your environment • Nutrition – turning food into energy • Excretion – getting rid of waste products • Reproduction – producing offspring • Growth- becoming larger in size
Features of Cells • There are 3 main parts that are common to both plants and Animal Cells. Organise these into the headings: Plant and Animal Cells and plant cells only. Plant Cells Plant and Animal Cells Has a Cell Wall Has a Nucleus Has a Cell Membrane Has a Cytoplasm Has Cholloroplasts Has a Vacule RE-ARRANGE SO THEY ARE IN THE CORRECT COLOMNS
What are the functions of the Cell? • Cell Wall is made of cellulose – it strengthens and supports the cell • Chloroplasts, which contain Chlorophyll, absorb light energy to make food through Photosynthesis. • A Vacuole is filled with cell sap [a sugar and water solution] and it provides rigid support. this is for PLANTS ONLY
What are the functions of the cell? • Cell Membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell • Cytoplasm is where all the reactions take place • A Nucleus is like the ‘’brain’’ of the cell and controls the activity of the cell. THIS APPLIES TO BOTH PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS This applies to BOTH types of Cell
What do they look like? PLANT ANIAMAL
Additional Material for HT HIGHER TIER Chemical Reactions are controlled by enzymes. The cytoplasm contains special structures called Mitochondria, which is where most of the energy is released during respiration.
Homework This question is taken from a past GCSE paper. Give the function of these parts of a plant cell. • Chloroplast • Cell wall • Vacuole
Cells, Tissues and Organs • A group of similar cells is called a • A group of afferent tissues form a • A group of organs working together form a • Or a whole organism Key Words: Tissues Organ Organ System Organism
Palisade Cells • Palisade Cells are designed for Photosynthesis • Tall shape means a lot of surface area exposed down the side for absorbing C02 • Good chance of light hitting the chloroplast before it reaches the bottom of the cell.
Specialist Cells • Specialist Cells have a particular functions that help them to carry out their job efficiently. • You might be asked how a particular type of cell is adapted to the job it does. You will therefore need to make notes on the following pieces of information.
Sperm Cell • 1) The sperm cell - designed to fertilise eggsA sperm cell is very small and has a little tail which provides movement so it can swim and find an egg to fertiliseIts head contains enzymes (in the vacuole) which allow it to digest its way through an egg membrane so the two nuclei can joinIt contains half the number of chromosomes in the nucleus - these carry genetic information from the father, which will be passed on to the offspring
Cilia Cell • 4) The cilia cell - designed to stop lung damageCilia cells line all the air passages in your lungsThey have tiny hairs, which filter the air as it blows throughThe hairs sweep mucus (snot) with trapped dust and bacteria up to the back of the throat where it is swallowed
Egg Cell • 2) The ovum (egg) cell - designed to be fertilisedAn ovum is large and bulky because no active movement is needed - it just sits and waits for the sperm to find itIt contains yolk (in the cytoplasm) which provides a large food store needed for the developing young organism once it's fertilisedIt contains half the number of chromosomes, which carry genetic information from the mother - this will be passed on to the offspring
The root hair Cell • 5) The root hair cell - designed for absorbingThe long hair cell increases the surface area of the root, which helps absorption of water and mineralsIt has a really thin cell wall, which makes it easier for minerals to pass across into the root itself
Red Blood Cells • Doughnut shape to allow maximum O2 absorbed by the haemoglobin they contain. The function is similar the the Palisade Cells . They are doughnut shaped rather than tall to allow smooth passage through the capillaries • They are so packed with Haemoglobin that they have no room for a Nucleus
White Blood Cells • Are specialised because they help protect us against disease. They do this in two ways: • By engulfing the bacteria • By producing Antibodies, which recognise a particular type of illness the first time you have it, so when it appears again, you will not become ill. • This does not, however, work with viruses.
Homework • Explain how the Red Blood Cell [or a cell of your choice] is adapted to the job it carries out. In order to gain full marks, you should express your ideas using the correct scientific works and use good English (3 marks))