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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients

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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients

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  1. 32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients Robert Dallas, Eric Soper, Alex Elliott, Anna Karlin Block 3

  2. Basic Knowledge • Autotrophs survive and grow on inorganic substances • Essential Element- element a plant needs to survive • Lack of nutrients cause stunted growth and discolored leaves in plants. • 17 essential elements

  3. Macro Nutrients • C, O, H, N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg • Calcium- gives structure to cell walls • Potassium- helps with osmosis • Magnesium- vital part of chlorophyll

  4. Micro Nutrients • Cl, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Cu, Ni, Molybdenun • Micro- only need small amounts to survive • For every sixty million atoms of hydrogen, the plant needs one micro nutrient to survive. • Micro nutrients help with catalysis

  5. 32.8 Fertile Soil Supports Plant Growth Amber Yeasin Chloe McMahon Marleah Campbell Theresa Bryant

  6. Importance of Soil • Quality of soil determines plant’s growth • Good soil allows plants to absorb nutrients • Bacteria/algae break down a plant’s organic matter

  7. Soil Horizons • A Horizon • Topsoil is subject to extensive weather • B Horizon • contains fewer organisms • C horizon • parent material for upper layers of soil

  8. Cations and Anions • Cation exchange is mechanism • root hairs take up certain positively charged ions • Cations(+) adhere to (-) charged surfaces • Cation exchange • root hairs release hydrogen ions into soil • Anions usually not bound tightly by soil

  9. Cations and Anions

  10. Ions and Soil Fertility • Unbound ions drain out soil quickly • May take centuries for soil to become fertile • Loss of soil fertility = pressing environmental problem

  11. 32.9 - Soil conservation is essential to human life Leah Knobel Madison Stewart Scott Rambo Gurpreet Singh

  12. Ways to save soil • Proper irrigation • Prevention of erosion • Prudent fertilization

  13. Preventing Erosion Defintion of Erosion: Blowing away or washing away soil • Planting trees to block wind • Contour planting patterns to catch runoff water

  14. Proper Irrigation • Too much irrigation can make the soil salty. • Modern irrigation uses perforated pipes that drip water slowly closer to the roots, using less water. More water is then absorbed by the plant = LESS WASTE

  15. Prudent Fertilization • Fertilizers contain: - nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium ex. manure, fish meal, and compost • Nutrients must be broken down by bacteria and fungi. • Organic fertilizer is slower, but lasts much longer. • Inorganic fertilizer attains the nutrients quicker, but the minerals do not last as long. The minerals can runoff and cause pollution.

  16. Organic Soil & Farming Jonathan Dobson Lexie Allen ArgelMoncayo Jessi Sailer

  17. 32.9 Soil Conservation is Essential to Human Life • Our survival as a species depends on soil • Erosion and chemical pollution threaten this vital resource throughout the world • 3 critical goals of soil conservation: proper irrigation, prevention of erosion, prudent fertilization

  18. 32.9 continued… • Irrigation can make soil salty; too much so for plants to tolerate • In order to prevent erosion, farmers can take precautions such as planting rows of trees as wind breaks, terracing hillside crops, and cultivating in a contour pattern can prevent loss of top soil • Manure, fish meal, and compost are common fertilizers

  19. 32.10 Organic Farmers Follow Principles of Sustainable Growth • To be “organic” food must be grown and processed according to strict guidelines by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture • Goal is sustainable agriculture that is conservation minded, environmentally safe, and profitable • Meant to sustain biological diversity, maintain soil quality, manage pests with little pesticides, little use of fertilizers, and to avoid genetically modified organisms

  20. 32.10 continued… • Over 2 million acres are used for organic farming and industry is growing at 20% each year (0.3% of crop land and 2% of food market in U.S.) • Ultimate aim is to restore as much to the soil as is drawn from it • Protects environment and creates naturally produced foods

  21. 32.11Agricultural Research is Improving the Yields and Nutritional Value of Crops

  22. 800 million suffered from mal-nutrition • 40,000 people (including children) die each day • The most limited source for food production is land • Human population increases while farmland decreases • The commercial adoption by farmers of genetically modified crops has been one of the most rapid advances in the history of agriculture • Transgenic crops contain genes from the bacterium (Bacillus-Thuriugiensis) • Genes encode for protein which controls a number of serious insect pest • Transgenic plants (corns, soybeans, and wheat) are tolerant to a number of herbicides

  23. This allows farmers to kill weeds without harming the transgenic plants • Researchers are also engineering plants with enhanced resistance to disease • Nutritional quality of plants is being improved • Gold + Rice = increased qualities of vitamin A • E.x.: Different varieties of corn, wheat, and rice that are enriched in protein. • Important because protein deficiency is the leading cause of mal-nutrition

  24. 32.12 Fungi and Roots Chris Sharp Claire Hug Shawn Blake Benson Katherine Calhoun

  25. Fungus • Plants need large absorptive surface area • Root hairs provide this area • Plants can absorb more water by teaming with fungi • The roots that team with fungi are called Mycorrhiza • Mycorrhiza is covered in twisted mat of fungal filaments

  26. Fungus continued Fungi: • Benefits from sugars of the plant • Increases absorption surface area • Stimulates growth • Protects from pathogens in the soil

  27. The Plant • Fungus symbiosis was possibly an adaptation that allowed plants to colonize land evidence in fossil record • Roots can only transform into Mycorrhiza if exposed to the correct type of fungus • If seed drifts to foreign soil, it will not grow

  28. Bacteria • Nitrogen fixing bacteria provides a source of ammonium. • Infects the plants nodules • Plant gives bacteria carbohydrates and other organic compounds • Excretion of NH4+ which increases soil fertility

  29. 32.15 Plant Parasites and Carnivorous Plants Jamie Kelly Logan Riley Deana Sarkisova Lauren Scobee

  30. Many plants have symbiotic relationships • Epiphytes absorb water and minerals from rain • Parasites absorb sugars and minerals from their living hosts

  31. Some parasites tap into vascular tissue to absorb sugars • Certain plants obtain nutrients, nitrogen and minerals by killing insects or small animals • They live in soils with poor nitrogen and minerals such as acid bags