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32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients. Robert Dallas, Eric Soper, Alex Elliott, Anna Karlin Block 3. Basic Knowledge. Autotrophs survive and grow on inorganic substances Essential Element- element a plant needs to survive Lack of nutrients cause stunted growth and discolored leaves in plants.

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32 6 micro and macro nutrients
32.6 Micro and Macro Nutrients

Robert Dallas, Eric Soper, Alex Elliott, Anna Karlin

Block 3

Basic knowledge
Basic Knowledge

  • Autotrophs survive and grow on inorganic substances

  • Essential Element- element a plant needs to survive

  • Lack of nutrients cause stunted growth and discolored leaves in plants.

  • 17 essential elements

Macro nutrients
Macro Nutrients

  • C, O, H, N, S, P, K, Ca, Mg

  • Calcium- gives structure to cell walls

  • Potassium- helps with osmosis

  • Magnesium- vital part of chlorophyll

Micro nutrients
Micro Nutrients

  • Cl, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Cu, Ni, Molybdenun

  • Micro- only need small amounts to survive

  • For every sixty million atoms of hydrogen, the plant needs one micro nutrient to survive.

  • Micro nutrients help with catalysis

32 8 fertile soil supports plant growth
32.8 Fertile Soil Supports Plant Growth

Amber Yeasin

Chloe McMahon

Marleah Campbell

Theresa Bryant

Importance of soil
Importance of Soil

  • Quality of soil determines plant’s growth

  • Good soil allows plants to absorb nutrients

  • Bacteria/algae break down a plant’s organic matter

Soil horizons
Soil Horizons

  • A Horizon

    • Topsoil is subject to extensive weather

  • B Horizon

    • contains fewer organisms

  • C horizon

    • parent material for upper layers of soil

Cations and anions
Cations and Anions

  • Cation exchange is mechanism

    • root hairs take up certain positively charged ions

  • Cations(+) adhere to (-) charged surfaces

  • Cation exchange

    • root hairs release hydrogen ions into soil

  • Anions usually not bound tightly by soil

Cations and anions1
Cations and Anions

Ions and soil fertility
Ions and Soil Fertility

  • Unbound ions drain out soil quickly

  • May take centuries for soil to become fertile

  • Loss of soil fertility = pressing environmental problem

32 9 soil conservation is essential to human life
32.9 - Soil conservation is essential to human life

Leah Knobel

Madison Stewart

Scott Rambo

Gurpreet Singh

Ways to save soil
Ways to save soil

  • Proper irrigation

  • Prevention of erosion

  • Prudent fertilization

Preventing erosion
Preventing Erosion

Defintion of Erosion: Blowing away or washing away soil

  • Planting trees to block wind

  • Contour planting patterns to catch runoff water

Proper irrigation
Proper Irrigation

  • Too much irrigation can make the soil salty.

  • Modern irrigation uses perforated pipes that

    drip water slowly closer to the roots, using less water.

    More water is then absorbed by the plant


Prudent fertilization
Prudent Fertilization

  • Fertilizers contain:

    - nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium

    ex. manure, fish meal, and compost

  • Nutrients must be broken down by bacteria and fungi.

  • Organic fertilizer is slower, but lasts much longer.

  • Inorganic fertilizer attains the nutrients quicker, but the minerals do not last as long. The minerals can runoff and cause pollution.

Organic soil farming
Organic Soil & Farming

Jonathan Dobson

Lexie Allen


Jessi Sailer

32 9 soil conservation is essential to human life1
32.9 Soil Conservation is Essential to Human Life

  • Our survival as a species depends on soil

  • Erosion and chemical pollution threaten this vital resource throughout the world

  • 3 critical goals of soil conservation: proper irrigation, prevention of erosion, prudent fertilization

32 9 continued
32.9 continued…

  • Irrigation can make soil salty; too much so for plants to tolerate

  • In order to prevent erosion, farmers can take precautions such as planting rows of trees as wind breaks, terracing hillside crops, and cultivating in a contour pattern can prevent loss of top soil

  • Manure, fish meal, and compost are common fertilizers

32 10 organic farmers follow principles of sustainable growth
32.10 Organic Farmers Follow Principles of Sustainable Growth

  • To be “organic” food must be grown and processed according to strict guidelines by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture

  • Goal is sustainable agriculture that is conservation minded, environmentally safe, and profitable

  • Meant to sustain biological diversity, maintain soil quality, manage pests with little pesticides, little use of fertilizers, and to avoid genetically modified organisms

32 10 continued
32.10 continued… Growth

  • Over 2 million acres are used for organic farming and industry is growing at 20% each year (0.3% of crop land and 2% of food market in U.S.)

  • Ultimate aim is to restore as much to the soil as is drawn from it

  • Protects environment and creates naturally produced foods

  • 800 million suffered from mal-nutrition Nutritional Value of Crops

    • 40,000 people (including children) die each day

  • The most limited source for food production is land

    • Human population increases while farmland decreases

  • The commercial adoption by farmers of genetically modified crops has been one of the most rapid advances in the history of agriculture

    • Transgenic crops contain genes from the bacterium (Bacillus-Thuriugiensis)

    • Genes encode for protein which controls a number of serious insect pest

  • Transgenic plants (corns, soybeans, and wheat) are tolerant to a number of herbicides

  • This allows farmers to kill weeds without harming the transgenic plants

    • Researchers are also engineering plants with enhanced resistance to disease

  • Nutritional quality of plants is being improved

  • Gold + Rice = increased qualities of vitamin A

    • E.x.: Different varieties of corn, wheat, and rice that are enriched in protein.

    • Important because protein deficiency is the leading cause of mal-nutrition

32 12 fungi and roots
32.12 Fungi and Roots transgenic plants

Chris Sharp

Claire Hug

Shawn Blake Benson

Katherine Calhoun

Fungus transgenic plants

  • Plants need large absorptive surface area

    • Root hairs provide this area

  • Plants can absorb more water by teaming with fungi

  • The roots that team with fungi are called Mycorrhiza

    • Mycorrhiza is covered in twisted mat of fungal filaments

Fungus continued
Fungus continued transgenic plants


  • Benefits from sugars of the plant

  • Increases absorption surface area

  • Stimulates growth

  • Protects from pathogens in the soil

The plant
The Plant transgenic plants

  • Fungus symbiosis was possibly an adaptation that allowed plants to colonize land evidence in fossil record

  • Roots can only transform into Mycorrhiza if exposed to the correct type of fungus

    • If seed drifts to foreign soil, it will not grow

Bacteria transgenic plants

  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria provides a source of ammonium.

  • Infects the plants nodules

  • Plant gives bacteria carbohydrates and other organic compounds

  • Excretion of NH4+ which increases soil fertility

32 15 plant parasites and carnivorous plants
32.15 Plant Parasites and Carnivorous Plants transgenic plants

Jamie Kelly

Logan Riley

Deana Sarkisova

Lauren Scobee