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The Evolution of Fingerprinting Amanda Hurtado, Katherine McGowan, Blanca Muñoz
Ancient History of Fingerprinting 2000 BC Fingerprints were used for business transactions in Babylon. 221-206 BC China had records about using hand prints as evidence during investigation. 221 BC- 220 AD Fingerprints were used on clay seals to “sign” documents. 14th Century Official government documents contained fingerprint impressions.
Nehemiah Grew/ Marcello Malpighi • English botanist, physician and microscopist • 1684: Published Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London vol. 14, pp. 566-567 (1684). • First person to study and describe ridges, furrows, and pores on hand and foot surfaces. • Italian physiologist • 1687: Published Concerning the External Tactile Organs • Noted that ridged skin increases friction between an object and the skin’s surface which enhances traction for walking and grasping friction ridge skin observations
1788 – German anatomist Johann Christoph Andreas Mayer is the first to write that friction ridge skin is unique. Book: Anatomical Copper-plates with Appropriate Explanations, Mayer wrote, “Although the arrangement of skin ridges is never duplicated in two persons, nevertheless the similarities are closer among some individuals. In others the differences are marked, yet in spite of their peculiarities of arrangement all have a certain likeness” Andreas Mayer
Evangelist published article on nine fingerprint patterns 1832 Did not receive credit due to not applying his method to anything useful (although others did piggy-back on his ideas) Was known mostly for studying cells Johannes E. Purkinje 1823
After Indian Mutiny of 1858, became member of Indian Civil Service Contract with fickle employer made him put handprint on contract Used prints on family prints did not change over time Published worked in England’s “Nature” magazine that prints are consistent William Herschel 1858
Henry Faulds (1880) • British surgeon and Superintendent of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo. • Wrote an article that discussed fingerprints as a means of identification. • Began to study “skin-furrows”. • Developed a classification system for recording impressions. • He is credited with the first fingerprint identification.
First (known) use of fingerprints for legal purposes in the US Engineer working for US Geological Survey working on railroads in Mexico 1882 Pressed thumb print on “chit wages” to prevent forgeries (caught a “lying Bob” and made him pay $75) Gilbert Thompson 1882
Alphonse Bertillon, a Clerk in the Prefecture of Police of at Paris, France System of classification: Anthropometry- First method of classification also known as the Bertillon System This method laid ground work for acceptance of fingerprints as scientific method. Alphonse Bertillion
Studied prints to see patterns in prints and genealogy Did calculations on statistics of fingerprint similarities Identified characteristics of fingerprints in his article “Fingerprints” 1892 Frances Galton 1888
Juan Vucetich (1892) • Statistician at the Central Police Department in La Plata, Argentina. He was later promoted to Anthropometric Identification. • Kept the first fingerprint files based on Galton’s details. • Made the first criminal fingerprint identification
Sir Edward Richard Henry (1896) • Inspector General of Police for the Lower Provinces in Bengal. • Went before an inquiry committee to convince them to change to fingerprinting criminals instead of using the Bertillon Method. • Published the book The Classification and Use of Fingerprints.
Fingerprints in Crime William West Case (1903) Rojas Case (1892)
Mark Twain’s Life of the Mississippi 1883 used fingerprint ID to catch the antagonist. Alfred Hitchcock used fingerprints in M is for Murderby having one character trick another into leaving a visible print on a letter Adventure of the Norwood Builder, a Sherlock Holmes novel by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle used fingerprints as a significant clue at a turning point in the novel. Ballistics and tool marks were also brought to the public in his series Fingerprints in pop culture
Developed the science of poroscopy, the study of fingerprint pores and the impressions produced by these pores. Established the first rules of the minimum number of minutiae necessary for identification He said that if 12 specific points were identical between two fingerprints, it would be sufficient for positive identification. Edmond locard
Sergeant and forensic identification specialist in Canada. Specialized in ridgeology. Noted fingerprint individuality Remain unchanged except for scars Patterns and details are unique; ridge patterns vary within David Ashbaugh
Replace intensive processes of classifying, searching, and matching ten print cards used for personal identification Database search for 10 pt. set of prints 1963 Special Agent Carl Voelker: FBI’s fingerprint identification process. 1975-1976: System called Finder was delivered to the FBI. Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)
Summary China- Business Transactions (AFIS) Computer Databases Bertillon’s Method Fingerprint Cards
Work cited Ashbaugh, David R. Ridgeology Modern Evaluative Friction Ridge Identification. Canada, 1999. eBook file. Barnes, Jeffery G. "History." Fingerprint Source Book. Maryland, 2010. 3-18. PDF file. Crime Scene Forensics. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.crimescene-forensics.com/ History_of_Fingerprints.html> Ferguson, C. E., B. E. Turvey, and W. A. Petherick. "Edmond Locard." Forensic Science Central. Elsevier Academic, 2010. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://forensicsciencecentral.co.uk/edmondlocard.shtml>. Fingerprint Evidence. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.finger-prints.com/>. Gale, Thomson, ed. "Ashbaugh, David Robinson." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam™ Research, 2014. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3448300042.html>. Galton, Francis. Finger Prints. London: MACMILLAN AND CO. AND NEW YORK, 1892. N. pag. Digital file.
Herschel, William J. The Origin of Finger-Printing. London: OXFORD UP, 1916. N. pag. eBook file. Higgins, Peter, et al. "Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)." Fingerprint Source Book. By Kenneth R. Moses. Maryland, 2010. 3-33.PDF file. History of Forensic Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://forensicpsych.umwblogs.org/research/criminaljustice/fingerprint- analysis/>. Reachinformation. Reach Information, 2009. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.healthcare.reachinformation.com/Nehemiah_Grew.aspx>. The History of Fingerprints. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://onin.com/fp/ fphistory.html>.