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# Some Basic Concepts of Energy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Some Basic Concepts of Energy. Prepared for FYF 101J - Alternative Energy. Kenneth M. Klemow, Ph.D. Wilkes University. Overview of topics. Basic energy concepts Historic phases of energy production and supply Terminology pertaining to energy. Basic energy concepts. What is energy?.

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### Some Basic Conceptsof Energy

Prepared for FYF 101J - Alternative Energy

Kenneth M. Klemow, Ph.D.

Wilkes University

• Basic energy concepts

• Historic phases of energy production and supply

• Terminology pertaining to energy

• Ability to do work

• Physicists distinguish between kinetic and potential energy

• Energy comes in different forms

• Mechanical energy

• Chemical energy

• Atomic energy

• Electromagnetic energy

• Electrical energy

• Heat energy

• Force: Newton (N = kg x m / s²)

• Energy: Joule (J = N x m)

• Power: Watt (J / s)

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• The energy released when an apple falls one meter to the ground.

• The energy released as heat by a person at rest, every hundredth of a second.

• # one hundredth of the energy a person can receive by drinking a drop of beer.

• 1 calorie = 4.187 J

• 1 BTU = 1054 J

• 1 kilowatt hour = 3.60 x 106 J

• 1 barrel oil equivalent = 6.119 x 109 J

• 1 ton wood equivalent = 9.83 x 109 J

• 1 ton coal equivalent = 29.31 x 109 J

• 1 ton oil equivalent = 41.87 x 109 J

• 1 quad (PBtu) = 1.055 x 1018 J

• 1 horsepower = 735.49 W

• First law: Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, can only be converted (conservation of energy)

• Second law: No energy conversion is perfect; always get some loss as heat.

• Power = energy / time

• 1 watt - 1 Joule / second

• Energy = power x time

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Carbon reduction

CO2

C6H12O6

H2O

Carbon oxidation

Energy

Why is living matter a source of energy?

• Biblical times

• Move people and their possessions

• Agriculture and food processing

• Build cities

• Produce clothing

• Simple chemical transformations (e.g. metallurgy)

• Heating

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• Animate sources

• Humans

• Animals

• Biomass (woody tissue)

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Energy needs

• Industrial revolution times

• Mechanized food production / consumption

• Centralized heating

• Transportation

• Lighting

• Textile manufacturing

• More complex chemical processes (e.g., glass manufacturing)

Where did this energy come from?

• Animate sources (mainly animals)

• Biomass (woody tissue)

• Coal

• Petroleum

• Low capacity wind

Why we need energy

• Modern

• Transportation (personal vehicles, commercial vehicles, aviation)

• Automated production of goods

• Transport of goods

• Centralized heating and air conditioning

• Lighting

• Highly complex chemical processes

Where does this energy come from?

• Coal

• Petroleum

• Natural gas

• Nuclear fission

• High and low head hydropower

• Biomass (woody and herbaceous tissue)

• Animate sources (mainly animals)

• Low capacity and industrial wind

• Geothermal

• Solar collection

• Renewable vs nonrenewable

• Commercialized vs non-commercialized

• Centralized vs distributed generation

• On-grid vs off-grid

Stages of energy flowfrom http://www.fao.org/docrep/u2246e/u2246e02.htm

• Primary energy is the energy as it is available in the natural environment, i.e. the primary source of energy.

• Secondary energy is the energy ready for transport or transmission.

• Final energy is the energy which the consumer buys or receives.

• Useful energy is the energy which is an input in an end-use application.

Stages of energy flowfrom http://www.fao.org/docrep/u2246e/u2246e02.htm