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Some Basic Concepts of Energy. Prepared for FYF 101J - Alternative Energy. Kenneth M. Klemow, Ph.D. Wilkes University. Overview of topics. Basic energy concepts Historic phases of energy production and supply Terminology pertaining to energy. Basic energy concepts. What is energy?.

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Some basic concepts of energy l.jpg

Some Basic Conceptsof Energy

Prepared for FYF 101J - Alternative Energy

Kenneth M. Klemow, Ph.D.

Wilkes University


Overview of topics l.jpg
Overview of topics

  • Basic energy concepts

  • Historic phases of energy production and supply

  • Terminology pertaining to energy



What is energy l.jpg
What is energy?

  • Ability to do work

  • Physicists distinguish between kinetic and potential energy

  • Energy comes in different forms

    • Radiation

    • Mechanical energy

    • Chemical energy

    • Atomic energy

    • Electromagnetic energy

    • Electrical energy

    • Heat energy


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How do we measure energy?

  • Force: Newton (N = kg x m / s²)

  • Energy: Joule (J = N x m)

  • Power: Watt (J / s)

www.sommarskog.se


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Is a Joule a lot or a little?

  • The energy released when an apple falls one meter to the ground.

  • The energy released as heat by a person at rest, every hundredth of a second.

  • # one hundredth of the energy a person can receive by drinking a drop of beer.


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Some conversion factors

  • 1 calorie = 4.187 J

  • 1 BTU = 1054 J

  • 1 kilowatt hour = 3.60 x 106 J

  • 1 barrel oil equivalent = 6.119 x 109 J

  • 1 ton wood equivalent = 9.83 x 109 J

  • 1 ton coal equivalent = 29.31 x 109 J

  • 1 ton oil equivalent = 41.87 x 109 J

  • 1 quad (PBtu) = 1.055 x 1018 J

  • 1 horsepower = 735.49 W


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Laws of Thermodyamics

  • First law: Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, can only be converted (conservation of energy)

  • Second law: No energy conversion is perfect; always get some loss as heat.


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Energy and power

  • Power = energy / time

    • 1 watt - 1 Joule / second

  • Energy = power x time

www.belmont.k12.ca.us


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Energy

Carbon reduction

CO2

C6H12O6

H2O

Carbon oxidation

Energy

Why is living matter a source of energy?


Energy needs l.jpg
Energy needs

  • Biblical times

    • Move people and their possessions

    • Agriculture and food processing

    • Build cities

    • Produce clothing

    • Simple chemical transformations (e.g. metallurgy)

    • Heating

www.uncp.edu


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Where did this energy come from?

  • Animate sources

    • Humans

    • Animals

  • Low head hydropower

  • Biomass (woody tissue)

www.uncp.edu


Energy needs13 l.jpg

mhslibrary.org/

Energy needs

  • Industrial revolution times

    • Mechanized food production / consumption

    • Centralized heating

    • Transportation

    • Lighting

    • Textile manufacturing

    • More complex chemical processes (e.g., glass manufacturing)


Where did this energy come from14 l.jpg

mhslibrary.org/

Where did this energy come from?

  • Animate sources (mainly animals)

  • Low head hydropower

  • Biomass (woody tissue)

  • Coal

  • Petroleum

  • Low capacity wind


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content.answers.com

Why we need energy

  • Modern

    • Transportation (personal vehicles, commercial vehicles, aviation)

    • Automated production of goods

    • Transport of goods

    • Centralized heating and air conditioning

    • Lighting

    • Highly complex chemical processes


Where does this energy come from l.jpg

content.answers.com

Where does this energy come from?

  • Coal

  • Petroleum

  • Natural gas

  • Nuclear fission

  • High and low head hydropower

  • Biomass (woody and herbaceous tissue)

  • Animate sources (mainly animals)

  • Low capacity and industrial wind

  • Geothermal

  • Solar collection


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Terminology pertaining to modern energy

  • Renewable vs nonrenewable

  • Traditional vs new energy

  • Commercialized vs non-commercialized

  • Centralized vs distributed generation

  • On-grid vs off-grid


Stages of energy flow from http www fao org docrep u2246e u2246e02 htm l.jpg
Stages of energy flowfrom http://www.fao.org/docrep/u2246e/u2246e02.htm

  • Primary energy is the energy as it is available in the natural environment, i.e. the primary source of energy.

  • Secondary energy is the energy ready for transport or transmission.

  • Final energy is the energy which the consumer buys or receives.

  • Useful energy is the energy which is an input in an end-use application.


Stages of energy flow from http www fao org docrep u2246e u2246e02 htm19 l.jpg
Stages of energy flowfrom http://www.fao.org/docrep/u2246e/u2246e02.htm