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Human Resource Use - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Human Resource Use. Human Values & Attitudes (Socio-political). Human Land Use Practices Agriculture Suburban Development Let’s pick on Indiana: 97% of land in state = privately-owned In central Indiana, 70+% of land in row crop <10% in forest Urban sprawl intensifying.

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Human Resource Use

Human Values & Attitudes



Human Land Use Practices

  • Agriculture
  • Suburban Development
  • Let’s pick on Indiana:
  • 97% of land in state = privately-owned
  • In central Indiana,
    • 70+% of land in row crop
    • <10% in forest
    • Urban sprawl intensifying
human impacts
Human Impacts
  • Ecosystem simplification: elimination of species from food webs via human alterations to land
  • Example: vertebrate communities in ag. landscapes

Intensive Agriculture


Clean Farming


Timber Extraction




Formation of

Terrestrial “Islands”

species area relationship
Species-Area Relationship
  • S = cAz
  • S = # of species
  • A = island area
  • Positive correlation between island size & number of species
  • Applies to terrestrial “islands” also
island biogeography
Island Biogeography
  • equilibrium model suggesting that the number of species occurring on an island represents a balance between immigration (in) and extinction (out)
  • Robert MacArthur & E.O. Wilson
habitat fragmentation
Habitat Fragmentation
  • Process of breaking contiguous unit into smaller pieces; area & distance components
  • Leads to:
    • < remnant patch size
    • > edge:interior ratios
    • > patch isolation
    • < connectivity
  • Community & Ecosystem processes altered

Formation of

Terrestrial “Islands”


Patch size


Patch isolation



What about

aquatic systems?


What about

aquatic systems?

Con.Bio 12(6)

habitat fragmentation24
Habitat Fragmentation
  • First-Order Effects: fragmentation leads to change in a species’ abundance and/or distribution
  • Higher-Order Effects: fragmentation indirectly leads to change in a species abundance and/or distribution via altered species interactions
habitat fragmentation25
Habitat Fragmentation
  • area-sensitive species: species that require minimum patch size for daily life requirements
  • Edge effects: influence of factors from outside of a patch
edge effects
Edge Effects
  • Habitat surrounding a patch can:
    • change abiotic conditions; e.g., temp.
    • change biotic interactions, e.g., predation
  • Example of nest predation = edge effect of approximately 50 m into forest patch
  • But can extend 100’s of meters….maybe km’s
edge effects27
Edge Effects
  • How does patch size (in a landscape) & shape affect amount of edge?
    • Groups – give me a mathematical example with forested landscapes that have timber extraction via clearcutting

Exponential vs. Logistic



All populations same

All populations same

No Spatial component

incorporating space
Incorporating Space
  • Metapopulation: a population of subpopulations linked by dispersal of organisms
  • subpopulations separated by unsuitable habitat
  • subpopulations differ in population size & distance between
metapopulation model
Metapopulation Model

p = habitat patch (subpopulation)

c = colonization

e = extinction

another population model
Another Population Model
  • Source-sink Dynamics: grouping of multiple subpopulations, some are sinks & some are sources
  • Source Population = births > deaths = net exporter
  • Sink Population = births < deaths




Source-sink Dynamics

who cares
Who Cares?
  • Why bother discussing these models?
  • Metapopulations & Source-sink Populatons highlight the importance of:
  • habitat & landscape fragmentation
  • connectivity between isolated populations
  • genetic diversity
vancouver island marmot marmota vancouverensis
Vancouver Island marmot(Marmota vancouverensis)

~100 left

Isolated from hoary and

Olympic marmots

vancouver island marmot marmota vancouverensis41
Vancouver Island marmot(Marmota vancouverensis)
  • Logging – disjunct patches
    • - max. dispersal = 7 km
  • Climate
  • Prey-Predator Dynamics
differential sensitivities to habitat alteration
Differential Sensitivities to Habitat Alteration
  • Niche breadth (diet & habitat) – inverse relation
  • Range periphery = more sensitive (W & N)
  • Body size = mobility (allometric relation)
  • Social and territorial behavior (limited K)

Swihart et al. 2003

ways to manage
Ways to Manage

1) Featured Species Mgt

  • single species
  • particular purpose
  • e.g., white-tailed deer
  • could also include “umbrella species” and “flagship species” or “sensitive species”
ways to manage44
Ways to Manage

2) Species Richness Mgt

  • maintain diversity and certain # of each species (follow MVP concept)

3) Indicator Species Mgt

  • use a species (or group of species) to monitor environmental conditions
  • not necessarily managing for these spp.
  • bioindicators, biosentinels, “canary in coal mine”
ways to manage45
Ways to Manage

4) Guild Mgt or Life-Form Mgt

  • grouping of species based on use of same type of resources (e.g., foraging guilds)