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Human Resource Use. Human Values & Attitudes (Socio-political). Human Land Use Practices Agriculture Suburban Development Let’s pick on Indiana: 97% of land in state = privately-owned In central Indiana, 70+% of land in row crop <10% in forest Urban sprawl intensifying.

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slide1

Human Resource Use

Human Values & Attitudes

(Socio-political)

slide2

Human Land Use Practices

  • Agriculture
  • Suburban Development
  • Let’s pick on Indiana:
  • 97% of land in state = privately-owned
  • In central Indiana,
    • 70+% of land in row crop
    • <10% in forest
    • Urban sprawl intensifying
human impacts
Human Impacts
  • Ecosystem simplification: elimination of species from food webs via human alterations to land
  • Example: vertebrate communities in ag. landscapes
slide5

Intensive Agriculture

&

Clean Farming

slide6

Timber Extraction

&

Fragmentation

slide7

Formation of

Terrestrial “Islands”

species area relationship
Species-Area Relationship
  • S = cAz
  • S = # of species
  • A = island area
  • Positive correlation between island size & number of species
  • Applies to terrestrial “islands” also
island biogeography
Island Biogeography
  • equilibrium model suggesting that the number of species occurring on an island represents a balance between immigration (in) and extinction (out)
  • Robert MacArthur & E.O. Wilson
habitat fragmentation
Habitat Fragmentation
  • Process of breaking contiguous unit into smaller pieces; area & distance components
  • Leads to:
    • < remnant patch size
    • > edge:interior ratios
    • > patch isolation
    • < connectivity
  • Community & Ecosystem processes altered
slide13

Formation of

Terrestrial “Islands”

slide15

Patch size

#patches

Patch isolation

Edge

slide20

What about

aquatic systems?

slide21

What about

aquatic systems?

Con.Bio 12(6)

habitat fragmentation24
Habitat Fragmentation
  • First-Order Effects: fragmentation leads to change in a species’ abundance and/or distribution
  • Higher-Order Effects: fragmentation indirectly leads to change in a species abundance and/or distribution via altered species interactions
habitat fragmentation25
Habitat Fragmentation
  • area-sensitive species: species that require minimum patch size for daily life requirements
  • Edge effects: influence of factors from outside of a patch
edge effects
Edge Effects
  • Habitat surrounding a patch can:
    • change abiotic conditions; e.g., temp.
    • change biotic interactions, e.g., predation
  • Example of nest predation = edge effect of approximately 50 m into forest patch
  • But can extend 100’s of meters….maybe km’s
edge effects27
Edge Effects
  • How does patch size (in a landscape) & shape affect amount of edge?
    • Groups – give me a mathematical example with forested landscapes that have timber extraction via clearcutting
slide28

Exponential vs. Logistic

No DD

DD

All populations same

All populations same

No Spatial component

incorporating space
Incorporating Space
  • Metapopulation: a population of subpopulations linked by dispersal of organisms
  • subpopulations separated by unsuitable habitat
  • subpopulations differ in population size & distance between
metapopulation model
Metapopulation Model

p = habitat patch (subpopulation)

c = colonization

e = extinction

another population model
Another Population Model
  • Source-sink Dynamics: grouping of multiple subpopulations, some are sinks & some are sources
  • Source Population = births > deaths = net exporter
  • Sink Population = births < deaths
slide33

<1

>1

<1

Source-sink Dynamics

who cares
Who Cares?
  • Why bother discussing these models?
  • Metapopulations & Source-sink Populatons highlight the importance of:
  • habitat & landscape fragmentation
  • connectivity between isolated populations
  • genetic diversity
vancouver island marmot marmota vancouverensis
Vancouver Island marmot(Marmota vancouverensis)

~100 left

Isolated from hoary and

Olympic marmots

vancouver island marmot marmota vancouverensis41
Vancouver Island marmot(Marmota vancouverensis)
  • Logging – disjunct patches
    • - max. dispersal = 7 km
  • Climate
  • Prey-Predator Dynamics
differential sensitivities to habitat alteration
Differential Sensitivities to Habitat Alteration
  • Niche breadth (diet & habitat) – inverse relation
  • Range periphery = more sensitive (W & N)
  • Body size = mobility (allometric relation)
  • Social and territorial behavior (limited K)

Swihart et al. 2003

ways to manage
Ways to Manage

1) Featured Species Mgt

  • single species
  • particular purpose
  • e.g., white-tailed deer
  • could also include “umbrella species” and “flagship species” or “sensitive species”
ways to manage44
Ways to Manage

2) Species Richness Mgt

  • maintain diversity and certain # of each species (follow MVP concept)

3) Indicator Species Mgt

  • use a species (or group of species) to monitor environmental conditions
  • not necessarily managing for these spp.
  • bioindicators, biosentinels, “canary in coal mine”
ways to manage45
Ways to Manage

4) Guild Mgt or Life-Form Mgt

  • grouping of species based on use of same type of resources (e.g., foraging guilds)