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Scott Williams Manager of ARI wet lab research facilities Formerly Brood Operations Manager & Geneticist for Clear Spr PowerPoint Presentation
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Scott Williams Manager of ARI wet lab research facilities Formerly Brood Operations Manager & Geneticist for Clear Springs Foods, Inc. Clear Springs Foods’ Production. 22,000,000 lbs year process 85,000 lbs/day grow more than 60,000 lbs/day approximately 60% of Idaho’s production.

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Scott WilliamsManager of ARI wet lab research facilities

Formerly Brood Operations Manager & Geneticist for Clear Springs Foods, Inc.

clear springs foods production
Clear Springs Foods’ Production
  • 22,000,000 lbs year
  • process 85,000 lbs/day
  • grow more than 60,000 lbs/day
  • approximately 60% of Idaho’s production
vertical integration of trout production
Vertical Integration of Trout Production
  • Feed manufacturing
  • Brood operations
  • Farm production
  • Processing
    • primary
    • value added
  • Distribution
  • Marketing
brood division egg production research

Brood DivisionEgg Production & Research

Egg Production:

Soda Springs 71.5 Million

Snake River Brood 8.1 Million

Research:

Genetics of growth and survival traits

Trout reproduction

the brood division
The Brood Division

Two facilities

  • Buhl
    • Snake River canyon
    • Research facility
    • Selection site
    • Brood propagation site
    • 5% of egg production
  • Soda Springs
    • Primary egg production site
brood division movement of fish and eggs

Snake River Farm

Box Canyon Farm

Crystal Springs Farm

Brood Divisionmovement of fish and eggs

Snake River Brood Station

Soda Springs Brood Station

neomale production

brood female selection & propagation

selection program

primary site of egg production

egg production

CSF farms

selection program
Selection Program
  • Animal Model
    • Genetic merit based on:
      • Individual records
      • Family records
selection program1
Selection Program
  • Primarily
    • Growth rate
    • Indirectly for feed conversion rate
  • Secondarily
    • Disease resistance
size selection family and within family selection
Size SelectionFamily and Within Family Selection
  • 100 to 110 full-sib families per generation
  • 10 families per generation from randomly bred line
  • Families selection:
    • Families with poor early survival were discarded
    • Families with high mean weights at 273 days were saved
  • Within the selected families:
    • pit tag top 15 to 20% of individuals within the largest families at 273 days
the steps for size selection
The Steps forSize Selection
  • 40 days post-spawn, reduce to 600 individuals
  • 63 days, reduce to 100 individuals
  • 76 days, pool with another family in 100 gal tank
  • 138 days, each family is given unique clip/brand
  • 139 days, to raceway
  • 273 days, final measurement
  • 274 days, PIT tag the largest 10% of fish within the families having the largest mean weights
family and within family selection for size
Family and Within Family Selection for Size
  • 100 to 110 full-sib families per generation
  • 10 families per generation from a randomly bred non-selected (control) line
  • At 273 days
    • Families with low mean weights are discarded
    • Top 10-15% of the individuals from the largest families are PIT tagged
transfer of genetic improvement to the farms
Transfer of Genetic Improvement to the Farms
  • Selected females join the ranks of the brood females after first spawn
  • Amplification through use of selected females’ daughters become brood replacements
  • Selected males are sires of brood replacement females
brood replacement females
Brood Replacement Females
  • Progeny of 30 sires and 30 dams
  • Undergo mass selection
  • Produced in 15 lots per year
  • In the months of July through January
  • Spawn twice in natural photoperiod
  • Spawn two more times in light-control
  • Used for a total of four spawns
rainbow trout egg production
Rainbow Trout Egg Production
  • Maturation in 24 months
    • Some females will mature precociously
    • Depending on stock, 50% of the males will mature at 12 months
  • Photoperiod cues reproduction
  • Naturally spring spawners
    • Wild stocks will spawn from Feb to June
    • Selective breeding of domesticated fish has moved spawn time to fall - winter
egg production methods to affect egg availability
Egg Productionmethods to affect egg availability
  • Photoperiod manipulation of brood dams
    • Skeletal photoperiod
      • 6 hours of light  18 hours of light  6 hours of light
  • Thermal manipulation at incubation
    • Water chilled to slow or heated to speed development
  • Hormonal control of reproduction
    • Exogenous hormone applications to synchronize maturation
      • LHRHa implants
current culture practices modifying populations for growth and carcass traits
Current Culture Practicesmodifying populations for growth and carcass traits

Mono-sex culture

  • Sexual Dimorphism:
    • growth rates
    • carcass confirmation
  • Examples
    • Male culture
      • Tilapia
    • Female culture
      • Trout
current culture practices modifying populations for growth and carcass traits1
Current Culture Practicesmodifying populations for growth and carcass traits
  • Triploid culture
    • 3N ploidy
    • Are sexually non-viable (99.9%)
    • Males will exhibit secondary sexual characteristics
current culture practices modifying populations for growth and carcass traits2
Current Culture Practicesmodifying populations for growth and carcass traits
  • Triploid culture
    • 3N ploidy
    • Are sexually non-viable (99.9%)
    • Males will exhibit secondary sexual characteristics
  • Triploid mono-sex female populations
    • Will not undergo sexual maturation
    • Will be a uniform population
    • Will have improved growth rates over diploid female population after 18 months
sex determination in rainbow trout
Sex determination in rainbow trout
  • Females are homogametic
    • Have two copies of the X chromosome (XX)
  • Males are heterogametic
    • Have both an X and Y chromosome (XY)
  • Male gametes (sperm) are sex determining
    • They will carry either an X or Y chromosome
the perfect population from a trout culturist perspective
The perfect population – (from a trout culturist perspective)

All female or Monosex female

First Path-

  • Direct feminization of a mixed sex population
    • Oral doses of estradiol
  • Population of XX and XY genotypes
    • All female phenotypes
  • Problem
    • Regulatory concerns with hormone use on food fish
mono sex female population
Mono-Sex Female Population

Second Path through gynogenesis

  • Gynogenesis is an induced form of parthenogenesis
    • e.g. “virgin birth” of Komodo dragons
  • Diploid organism produced without the contribution of a male parent
  • Forms a population of XX animals in trout
  • Gynogens are highly inbred
    • Heterozygosity through crossing over during meiosis
mono sex female population1
Mono-Sex Female Population

Third path - start with masculinized females

  • Direct masculinization of a mixed sex population
    • Oral dose of methyltestosterone
    • Identify XX males (neomales)
      • Progeny testing
      • Use morphology to separate neomales from genetic males
  • Neomales become sires to mono-sex female population
mono sex female population commercial method
Mono-Sex Female Population (commercial method)
  • Generate female population through gynogenesis
  • Sex-reverse gynogens
    • Gynogens become neomales (XX males)
  • Neomales are sires for all female offspring
  • Perpetuate female population by sex-reversing offspring for sires of the next generation
  • Total elimination of the Y chromosome from the population